KEGG   ENZYME: 3.4.24.69Help
Entry
EC 3.4.24.69                Enzyme                                 

Name
bontoxilysin;
botulinum neurotoxin;
BoNT
Class
Hydrolases;
Acting on peptide bonds (peptidases);
Metalloendopeptidases
BRITE hierarchy
Reaction(IUBMB)
Limited hydrolysis of proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus, synaptobrevin (also known as neuronal vesicle-associated membrane protein, VAMP), synaptosome-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25) or syntaxin. No detected action on small molecule substrates
Comment
This zinc enzyme, produced by Clostridium botulinum, occurs as forms A-G that differ in specificity of action on the proteins of the neuroexocytosis apparatus [1-5]. The 150-kDa proenzymes of bontoxilysin are processed to disulfide-linked subunits of 100 and 50 kDa, the latter being responsible for the endopeptidase activities. Weakly inhibited by captopril, and phosphoramidon. Toxicity is due to action at the neuromuscular junctions that blocks release of acetylcholine, causing flaccid paralysis, in contrast to the spastic paralysis caused by tentoxilysin. In peptidase family M27 (tentoxilysin family)
History
EC 3.4.24.69 created 1995
Orthology
K06011  
botulinum neurotoxin
Genes
CBO: 
CBO0806(atx)
CBA: 
CLB_0848(boNT_A1)
CBH: 
CLC_0862(boNT_A1)
CBY: 
CLM_0897(botA)
CBL: 
CLK_A0076(boNT_A3)
CBK: 
CBB: 
CLD_A0068(boNT_B)
CBI: 
CLJ_0004(boNT_BvA4) CLJ_0133(boNT_BvB)
CBN: 
CBT: 
CLH_1110(boNT_E3)
CBF: 
CLI_0851(boNT_A1)
CBM: 
CBF_0821(boNT_F)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:8226912]
  Authors
Schiavo G, Rossetto O, Catsicas S, Polverino de Laureto P, DasGupta BR, Benfenati F, Montecucco C.
  Title
Identification of the nerve terminal targets of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, D, and E.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 23784-7.
Reference
2  [PMID:8243676]
  Authors
Schiavo G, Santucci A, Dasgupta BR, Mehta PP, Jontes J, Benfenati F, Wilson MC, Montecucco C.
  Title
Botulinum neurotoxins serotypes A and E cleave SNAP-25 at distinct COOH-terminal peptide bonds.
  Journal
FEBS. Lett. 335 (1993) 99-103.
  Organism
Clostridium botulinum
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:8505288]
  Authors
Schiavo G, Shone CC, Rossetto O, Alexander FC, Montecucco C.
  Title
Botulinum neurotoxin serotype F is a zinc endopeptidase specific for VAMP/synaptobrevin.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 268 (1993) 11516-9.
Reference
4  [PMID:8051110]
  Authors
Schiavo G, Malizio C, Trimble WS, Polverino de Laureto P, Milan G, Sugiyama H, Johnson EA, Montecucco C.
  Title
Botulinum G neurotoxin cleaves VAMP/synaptobrevin at a single Ala-Ala peptide bond.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 20213-6.
  Organism
Clostridium botulinum
Reference
5  [PMID:7527117]
  Authors
Montecucco C, Schiavo G.
  Title
Mechanism of action of tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins.
  Journal
Mol. Microbiol. 13 (1994) 1-8.
Reference
6  [PMID:7674951]
  Authors
Schiavo G, Montecucco C.
  Title
Tetanus and botulism neurotoxins: isolation and assay.
  Journal
Methods. Enzymol. 248 (1995) 643-52.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
107231-12-9

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