KEGG   DISEASE: H00013Help
Entry
H00013                      Disease                                

Name
Small cell lung cancer
Description
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases.  Molecular mechanisms altered in SCLC include induced expression of oncogene, MYC, and loss of tumorsuppressor genes, such as p53, PTEN, RB, and FHIT. The overexpression of MYC proteins in SCLC is largely a result of gene amplification. Such overexpression leads to more rapid proliferation and loss of terminal differentiation. Mutation or deletion of p53 or PTEN can lead to more rapid proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The retinoblastoma gene RB1 encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that helps to regulate cell-cycle progression. The fragile histidine triad gene FHIT encodes the enzyme diadenosine triphosphate hydrolase, which is thought to have an indirect role in proapoptosis and cell-cycle control.
Category
Cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Small cell lung cancer
MicroRNAs in cancer
Gene
c-MYC (amplification) [HSA:4609] [KO:K04377]
RAR-beta (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:5915] [KO:K08528]
FHIT (mutation) [HSA:2272] [KO:K01522]
p53 (LOH, mutation) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
RB1 (LOH, mutation) [HSA:5925] [KO:K06618]
PTEN (mutation, deletion) [HSA:5728] [KO:K01110]
Bcl-2 (overexpression) [HSA:596] [KO:K02161]
Carcinogen
Arsenic and arsenic compounds [CPD:C06269]
Asbestos [CPD:C16442]
Beryllium and beryllium compounds [CPD:C16460]
Bis(chloromethyl)ether and chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade)
N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone(NNK) [CPD:C16452 C16453]
Radon-222 and its decay products
Silica, crystalline (inhaled in the form of quartz orcristobalite from occupational sources) [CPD:C16459]
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
*Aluminium production
*Benzo[a]pyrene [CPD:C07535]
*Cadmium and cadmium compounds
*Chimney sweeping
*Coal gasification
*Coal-tar pitches
*Coal-tars [DR:D03573]
*Coke production
*Furniture and cabinet making
*Haematite mining (underground) with exposure to radon
*Household combustion of coal, indoor emissions from
*Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or environmental tobacco smoke)
*Iron and steel founding
*Mineral oils, untreated and mildly treated
*Painter (occupational exposure as a)
*Paving and roofing with coal-tar pitch
*Shale-oils [CPD:C16458]
*Soots
*Strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid
*Talc containing asbestiform fibres
*2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
*X- and gamma-radiation
*: Although this is a risk factor for lung cancer in general, the strength of association with different histological tumor types is not well understood.
Marker
ProGRP [HSA:2922]
NSE [HSA:2026]
Drug
Cisplatin [DR:D00275]
Etoposide [DG:DG00693]
Comment
ICD-O: 8041/3, Tumor type: Small cell carcinoma
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:12741677 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Yokota J, Nishioka M, Tani M, Kohno T.
  Title
Genetic alterations responsible for metastatic phenotypes of lung cancer cells.
  Journal
Clin Exp Metastasis 20:189-93 (2003)
Reference
PMID:12711111 (tumor type)
  Authors
Sanchez-Cespedes M.
  Title
Dissecting the genetic alterations involved in lung carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 40:111-21 (2003)
Reference
PMID:12407699 (gene)
  Authors
Mitsuuchi Y, Testa JR.
  Title
Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of lung cancer.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet 115:183-8 (2002)
Reference
PMID:16112428 (gene)
  Authors
Panani AD, Roussos C.
  Title
Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of lung cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 239:1-9 (2006)
Reference
PMID:15322513 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Boffetta P.
  Title
Epidemiology of environmental and occupational cancer.
  Journal
Oncogene 23:6392-403 (2004)
Reference
PMID:2831418 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Adachi S, Takemoto K.
  Title
[Occupational lung cancer. A comparison between humans and experimental animals]
  Journal
Sangyo Igaku 29:345-57 (1987)
Reference
PMID:17375514 (carcinogen)
  Authors
O'Reilly KM, Mclaughlin AM, Beckett WS, Sime PJ.
  Title
Asbestos-related lung disease.
  Journal
Am Fam Physician 75:683-8 (2007)
Reference
PMID:15660110 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Luch A.
  Title
Nature and nurture - lessons from chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 5:113-25 (2005)
Reference
PMID:12082370 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Gottschall EB.
  Title
Occupational and environmental thoracic malignancies.
  Journal
J Thorac Imaging 17:189-97 (2002)
Reference
PMID:17630920 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Grozio A, Catassi A, Cavalieri Z, Paleari L, Cesario A, Russo P.
  Title
Nicotine, lung and cancer.
  Journal
Anticancer Agents Med Chem 7:461-6 (2007)
Reference
PMID:10076528 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Schuller HM, Orloff M.
  Title
Tobacco-specific carcinogenic nitrosamines. Ligands for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in human lung cancer cells.
  Journal
Biochem Pharmacol 55:1377-84 (1998)
Reference
PMID:16155477 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Graff JJ, Sathiakumar N, Macaluso M, Maldonado G, Matthews R, Delzell E.
  Title
Chemical exposures in the synthetic rubber industry and lymphohematopoietic cancer mortality.
  Journal
J Occup Environ Med 47:916-32 (2005)
Reference
PMID:16299089 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Sathiakumar N, Graff J, Macaluso M, Maldonado G, Matthews R, Delzell E.
  Title
An updated study of mortality among North American synthetic rubber industry workers.
  Journal
Occup Environ Med 62:822-9 (2005)
Reference
PMID:11886955 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Verma DK, Purdham JT, Roels HA.
  Title
Translating evidence about occupational conditions into strategies for prevention.
  Journal
Occup Environ Med 59:205-13; quiz 214 (2002)
Reference
PMID:9358915 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Honma K, Chiyotani K, Kimura K.
  Title
Silicosis, mixed dust pneumoconiosis, and lung cancer.
  Journal
Am J Ind Med 32:595-9 (1997)
Reference
PMID:15489140 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Wogan GN, Hecht SS, Felton JS, Conney AH, Loeb LA.
  Title
Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 14:473-86 (2004)
Reference
PMID:15552776 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K.
  Title
Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 45 Suppl 2:S3-9 (2004)
Reference
PMID:9498904 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P.
  Title
Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
  Journal
Cancer Causes Control 8:444-72 (1997)
Reference
PMID:17530489 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Abnet CC.
  Title
Carcinogenic food contaminants.
  Journal
Cancer Invest 25:189-96 (2007)
Reference
PMID:17589590 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Zhang JJ, Smith KR.
  Title
Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in china: measurements, health impacts, and interventions.
  Journal
Environ Health Perspect 115:848-55 (2007)
Reference
PMID:17882278 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Sun S, Schiller JH, Gazdar AF.
  Title
Lung cancer in never smokers--a different disease.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 7:778-90 (2007)
Reference
PMID:10723042 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Stern FB, Ruder AM, Chen G.
  Title
Proportionate mortality among unionized roofers and waterproofers.
  Journal
Am J Ind Med 37:478-92 (2000)
Reference
PMID:17032693 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Hsu YM, Wu CY, Lundgren DA, Birky BK.
  Title
Size-resolved sulfuric acid mist concentrations at phosphate fertilizer manufacturing facilities in Florida.
  Journal
Ann Occup Hyg 51:81-9 (2007)
Reference
PMID:9498905 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Blair A, Kazerouni N.
  Title
Reactive chemicals and cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Causes Control 8:473-90 (1997)
Reference
PMID:15070562 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Darby S.
  Title
Risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays: estimates for the UK and 14 other countries.
  Journal
Lancet 363:345-51 (2004)
Reference
PMID:17534168 (marker)
  Authors
Greenberg AK, Lee MS.
  Title
Biomarkers for lung cancer: clinical uses.
  Journal
Curr Opin Pulm Med 13:249-55 (2007)
Reference
PMID:15128454 (marker)
  Authors
Taneja TK, Sharma SK.
  Title
Markers of small cell lung cancer.
  Journal
World J Surg Oncol 2:10 (2004)
Reference
PMID:16033098 (marker)
  Authors
Molina R, Auge JM, Filella X, Vinolas N, Alicarte J, Domingo JM, Ballesta AM.
  Title
Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (proGRP) in patients with benign and malignant diseases: comparison with CEA, SCC, CYFRA 21-1 and NSE in patients with lung cancer.
  Journal
Anticancer Res 25:1773-8 (2005)
Reference
PMID:17131623 (marker)
  Authors
Schneider J.
  Title
Tumor markers in detection of lung cancer.
  Journal
Adv Clin Chem 42:1-41 (2006)
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, Tierney LM (ed).
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2007, Forty-Sixth Edition
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2007)

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