KEGG   DISEASE: Oral cancerHelp
Entry
H00016                      Disease                                

Name
Oral cancer
Description
Oral cancer refers to a subgroup of head and neck malignancies that develop at the lips, tongue, salivary glands, gingiva, floor of the mouth, oropharynx, buccal surfaces and other intra-oral locations, according to the International Classification of Diseases. Nevertheless, the term is synonymous to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of oral mucosal origin that accounts for more than 90% of all malignant presentations at the aforementioned anatomical sites. Worldwide, oral SCC (OSCC) is the sixth most common cancer; more than 300,000 new cases are diagnosed each year. The development of OSCC is a multistep process requiring the accumulation of multiple genetic alterations, influenced by a patient's genetic predisposition as well as by environmental influences, including tobacco, alcohol, chronic inflammation, and viral infection. The genetic changes include activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), alterations of tumor suppressors p53 and p16, and cyclin D1 overexpression.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Head and neck cancers
   H00016  Oral cancer
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 2. Neoplasms (C00-D48)
  C00-C14  Malignant neoplasms of lip, oral cavity and pharynx
   C00-C06  Malignant neoplasm of oral cavity
    H00016  Oral cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Gene
p53 (mutation, deletion) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
p16/INK4A (mutation, loss of expression) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
EGFR (overexpression) [HSA:1956] [KO:K04361]
c-myc/N-myc (amplification, overexpression) [HSA:4609] [KO:K04377]
N-ras (amplification) [HSA:4893] [KO:K07828]
K-ras (amplification) [HSA:3845] [KO:K07827]
Cyclin D1 (amplification) [HSA:595] [KO:K04503]
STAT-3 (expression) [HSA:6774] [KO:K04692]
Carcinogen
Alcoholic beverages
Areca nut
Betel quid with tobacco
Betel quid without tobacco
Radionuclides, alpha-particle-emitting, internally deposited
Tobacco, smokeless
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
Pathogen
Human papillomavirus type 16 [GN:T40087]
Human papillomavirus type 18 [GN:T40088]
Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) [GN:T40079]
Marker
EGFR [HSA:1956]
Cyclin D1 [HSA:595]
Ki67 [HSA:4288]
AgNOR
RB1 [HSA:5925]
p53 [HSA:7157]
Zeta-chain
Drug
Cisplatin [DR:D00275]
Fluorouracil [DG:DG00687]
Paclitaxel [DG:DG01430]
Carboplatin [DR:D01363]
Docetaxel [DG:DG00694]
Cetuximab [DR:D03455]
Comment
ICD-O: 8070/3, Tumor type: Squamous cell carcinoma
Other DBs
Reference
PMID:17258495 (description, tumor type)
  Authors
Tsantoulis PK, Kastrinakis NG, Tourvas AD, Laskaris G, Gorgoulis VG
  Title
Advances in the biology of oral cancer.
  Journal
Oral Oncol 43:523-34 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2006.11.010
Reference
PMID:18096889 (description, gene)
  Authors
Choi S, Myers JN
  Title
Molecular pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: implications for therapy.
  Journal
J Dent Res 87:14-32 (2008)
DOI:10.1177/154405910808700104
Reference
PMID:12444391 (gene, tumor type, carcinogen)
  Authors
Das BR, Nagpal JK.
  Title
Understanding the biology of oral cancer.
  Journal
Med Sci Monit 8:RA258-67 (2002)
Reference
PMID:17530489 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Abnet CC.
  Title
Carcinogenic food contaminants.
  Journal
Cancer Invest 25:189-96 (2007)
DOI:10.1080/07357900701208733
Reference
PMID:17646865 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Seitz HK, Stickel F.
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 7:599-612 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/nrc2191
Reference
PMID:9448210 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Norton SA.
  Title
Betel: consumption and consequences.
  Journal
J Am Acad Dermatol 38:81-8 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0190-9622(98)70543-2
Reference
PMID:17163423 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Thomas SJ, Bain CJ, Battistutta D, Ness AR, Paissat D, Maclennan R.
  Title
Betel quid not containing tobacco and oral cancer: a report on a case-control study in Papua New Guinea and a meta-analysis of current evidence.
  Journal
Int J Cancer 120:1318-23 (2007)
DOI:10.1002/ijc.22304
Reference
PMID:14996286 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Warnakulasuriya S.
  Title
Smokeless tobacco and oral cancer.
  Journal
Oral Dis 10:1-4 (2004)
DOI:10.1046/j.1354-523X.2003.00975.x
Reference
PMID:9524432 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Hoffmann D, Djordjevic MV.
  Title
Chemical composition and carcinogenicity of smokeless tobacco.
  Journal
Adv Dent Res 11:322-9 (1997)
DOI:10.1177/08959374970110030301
Reference
PMID:15489140 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Wogan GN, Hecht SS, Felton JS, Conney AH, Loeb LA.
  Title
Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 14:473-86 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2004.06.010
Reference
PMID:15552776 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K.
  Title
Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 45 Suppl 2:S3-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.07.998
Reference
PMID:12767868 (marker)
  Authors
Schliephake H.
  Title
Prognostic relevance of molecular markers of oral cancer--a review.
  Journal
Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 32:233-45 (2003)
DOI:10.1054/ijom.2002.0383
Reference
PMID:14693233 (marker)
  Authors
Bettendorf O, Piffko J, Bankfalvi A.
  Title
Prognostic and predictive factors in oral squamous cell cancer: important tools for planning individual therapy?
  Journal
Oral Oncol 40:110-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2003.08.010
Reference
PMID:15580114 (marker)
  Authors
Chimenos-Kustner E, Font-Costa I, Lopez-Lopez J.
  Title
Oral cancer risk and molecular markers.
  Journal
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 9:381-4; 377-80 (2004)
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
  Journal
McGraw Hill Education

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