KEGG   DISEASE: Gastric cancerHelp
Entry
H00018                      Disease                                

Name
Gastric cancer
Description
Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. There is substantial international variation in gastric cancer incidence with the highest rates reported from Korea, Japan and eastern Asia. The global burden of gastric cancer is shifting rapidly from the developed world to the developing world. Despite the worldwide decline in incidence and the major improvements in diagnosis and treatment, less than 20% of patients survive to 5 years. Phenotypically, gastric cancer is divided into two histomorphological entities denominated 'intestinal' (IGCA) and 'diffuse' (DGCA), which differ in epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical outcome and genetic profile. The risk of both IGCA and DGCA is increased in the presence of Helicobacter pylori infection, and the risk rises with increases in grade and extent of atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Mutations and/or amplification/overexpression of the oncogenes c-K-ras, c-erbB-2, K-sam and c-met, inactivation of tumor suppressor genes p53, APC and DCC, and abnormal transcription of CD44 are believed to play a role in gastric carcinogenesis but seem to vary in frequency between IGCA and DGCA. E-cadherin/CDH1 gene germline mutations have been recognized in families with an inherited predisposition to DGCA.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Cancers of the digestive system
   H00018  Gastric cancer
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 2. Neoplasms (C00-D48)
  C15-C26  Malignant neoplasms of digestive organs
   C16  Malignant neoplasm of stomach
    H00018  Gastric cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 H00018
Cancer-accociated carbohydrates [br08441.html]
 H00018
BRITE hierarchy
Gene
K-ras (mutation) [HSA:3845] [KO:K07827]
c-met (amplification) [HSA:4233] [KO:K05099]
K-sam (amplification) [HSA:2263] [KO:K05093]
ERBB2 (amplification) [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
EGFR (overexpression) [HSA:1956] [KO:K04361]
EGF (overexpression) [HSA:1950] [KO:K04357]
TGF-alpha (overexpression) [HSA:7039] [KO:K08774]
VEGF (overexpression) [HSA:7422 7423 7424 2277] [KO:K05448 K16858 K05449]
p53 (mutation, LOH) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
APC (mutation, LOH) [HSA:324] [KO:K02085]
DCC (LOH) [HSA:1630] [KO:K06765]
E-Cadherin (mutation) [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
beta-Catenin (mutation) [HSA:1499] [KO:K02105]
CD44 (abnormal splice variants) [HSA:960] [KO:K06256]
Bcl-2 (LOH) [HSA:596] [KO:K02161]
Cyclin E (amplification) [HSA:898 9134] [KO:K06626]
Carcinogen
Benzo[a]pyrene [CPD:C07535]
Pathogen
Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
Marker
CA19-9 [GL:G12794]
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) [HSA:634] [KO:K06499]
HER2/neu gene amplification or protein overexpression [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
Drug
Epirubicin [DG:DG00698]
Cisplatin [DR:D00275]
Fluorouracil [DG:DG00687]
Docetaxel [DG:DG00694]
Leucovorin [DR:D01211]
Oxaliplatin [DR:D01790]
Trastuzumab [DG:DG01358]
Comment
ICD-O: 8140/3, Tumor type: Adenocarcinoma
ICD-O: 8144/3, Tumor type: intestinal type
ICD-O: 8145/3, Tumor type: diffuse type
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:11315254 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Werner M, Becker KF, Keller G, Hofler H.
  Title
Gastric adenocarcinoma: pathomorphology and molecular pathology.
  Journal
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 127:207-16 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/s004320000195
Reference
PMID:15224192 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Zheng L, Wang L, Ajani J, Xie K.
  Title
Molecular basis of gastric cancer development and progression.
  Journal
Gastric Cancer 7:61-77 (2004)
DOI:10.1007/s10120-004-0277-4
Reference
PMID:16718776 (gene)
  Authors
Smith MG, Hold GL, Tahara E, El-Omar EM.
  Title
Cellular and molecular aspects of gastric cancer.
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 12:2979-90 (2006)
DOI:10.3748/wjg.v12.i19.2979
Reference
PMID:15760280 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Schottenfeld D, Beebe-Dimmer JL.
  Title
Advances in cancer epidemiology: understanding causal mechanisms and the evidence for implementing interventions.
  Journal
Annu Rev Public Health 26:37-60 (2005)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144402
Reference
PMID:15660110 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Luch A.
  Title
Nature and nurture - lessons from chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 5:113-25 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1546
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
  Journal
McGraw Hill Education

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