KEGG   DISEASE: Gastric cancerHelp
Entry
H00018                      Disease                                

Name
Gastric cancer
Description
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the world's most common cancers. According to Lauren's histological classification gastric cancer is divided into two distinct histological groups - the intestinal and diffuse types. Several genetic changes have been identified in intestinal-type GC. The intestinal metaplasia is characterized by mutations in p53 gene, reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor beta  (RAR-beta) and hTERT expression. Gastric adenomas furthermore display mutations in the APC gene, reduced p27 expression and cyclin E amplification. In addition, amplification and overexpression of c-ErbB2, reduced TGF-beta receptor type I (TGFBRI) expression and complete loss of p27 expression are commonly observed in more advanced GC. The main molecular changes observed in diffuse-type GCs include loss of E-cadherin function by mutations in CDH1and  amplification of MET and FGFR2F.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Cancers of the digestive system
   H00018  Gastric cancer
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 2. Neoplasms (C00-D48)
  C15-C26  Malignant neoplasms of digestive organs
   C16  Malignant neoplasm of stomach
    H00018  Gastric cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 H00018
Cancer-accociated carbohydrates [br08441.html]
 H00018
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Gastric cancer
Network
N00012  
Mutation-activated KRAS/NRAS to ERK signaling pathway
N00020  
Amplified FGFR to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00038  
Amplified FGFR to PI3K signaling pathway
N00057  
Mutation-inactivated APC to Wnt signaling pathway
N00115  
Mutation-inactivated TP53 to transcription
N00240  
TERT-overexpression to telomerase activity
N00250  
CDX2-overexpression to transcriptional activation
N00251  
CDX2-overexpression to transcriptional repression
N00252  
Amplified ERBB2 to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00253  
Amplified ERBB2 to PI3K signaling pathway
N00254  
CDKN1B-reduced expression to p27-cell cycle G1/S
N00255  
Amplified CCNE to cell cycle G1/S
N00256  
TGFBR1-reduced expression to TGF-beta signaling pathway
N00257  
Loss of CDH1 to Wnt signaling pathway
N00258  
Mutation-inactivated CDH1 to Wnt signaling pathway
N00259  
Amplified MET to RAS-ERK signaling pathway
N00260  
Amplified MET to PI3K signaling pathway
Gene
CDX2 (overexpression) [HSA:1045] [KO:K22234]
p53 (mutation) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
RARB (reduced expression) [HSA:5915] [KO:K08528]
APC (mutation) [HSA:324] [KO:K02085]
CTNNB1 (mutation) [HSA:1499] [KO:K02105]
TERT (overexpression) [HSA:7015] [KO:K11126]
ERBB2 (amplification) [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
KRAS (mutation) [HSA:3845] [KO:K07827]
NRAS (mutation) [HSA:4893] [KO:K07828]
MLH1 (methylation) [HSA:4292] [KO:K08734]
CDKN1B (reduced expression) [HSA:1027] [KO:K06624]
CCNE1 (amplification) [HSA:898] [KO:K06626]
TGFBR1 (reduced expression) [HSA:7046] [KO:K04674]
CDH1 (mutation) [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
MET (amplification) [HSA:4233] [KO:K05099]
FGFR2 (amplification) [HSA:2263] [KO:K05093]
Carcinogen
Benzo[a]pyrene [CPD:C07535]
Pathogen
Helicobacter pylori (infection with)
Marker
CA19-9 [GL:G12794]
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) [HSA:634] [KO:K06499]
HER2/neu gene amplification or protein overexpression [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
Drug
Epirubicin [DG:DG00698]
Cisplatin [DR:D00275]
Fluorouracil [DG:DG00687]
Docetaxel [DG:DG00694]
Leucovorin [DR:D01211]
Oxaliplatin [DR:D01790]
Trastuzumab [DG:DG01358]
Comment
ICD-O: 8140/3, Tumor type: Adenocarcinoma
ICD-O: 8144/3, Tumor type: intestinal type
ICD-O: 8145/3, Tumor type: diffuse type
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:11315254 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Werner M, Becker KF, Keller G, Hofler H.
  Title
Gastric adenocarcinoma: pathomorphology and molecular pathology.
  Journal
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 127:207-16 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/s004320000195
Reference
PMID:15224192 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Zheng L, Wang L, Ajani J, Xie K.
  Title
Molecular basis of gastric cancer development and progression.
  Journal
Gastric Cancer 7:61-77 (2004)
DOI:10.1007/s10120-004-0277-4
Reference
PMID:26073375 (gene)
  Authors
Tan P, Yeoh KG
  Title
Genetics and Molecular Pathogenesis of Gastric Adenocarcinoma.
  Journal
Gastroenterology 149:1153-1162.e3 (2015)
DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2015.05.059
Reference
PMID:26267324 (gene)
  Authors
Riquelme I, Saavedra K, Espinoza JA, Weber H, Garcia P, Nervi B, Garrido M, Corvalan AH, Roa JC, Bizama C
  Title
Molecular classification of gastric cancer: Towards a pathway-driven targeted therapy.
  Journal
Oncotarget 6:24750-79 (2015)
DOI:10.18632/oncotarget.4990
Reference
PMID:16154715 (gene)
  Authors
Stock M, Otto F
  Title
Gene deregulation in gastric cancer.
  Journal
Gene 360:1-19 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.gene.2005.06.026
Reference
PMID:18381231 (gene)
  Authors
Panani AD
  Title
Cytogenetic and molecular aspects of gastric cancer: clinical implications.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 266:99-115 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2008.02.053
Reference
PMID:16997151 (gene)
  Authors
Vauhkonen M, Vauhkonen H, Sipponen P
  Title
Pathology and molecular biology of gastric cancer.
  Journal
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 20:651-74 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.bpg.2006.03.016
Reference
PMID:15760280 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Schottenfeld D, Beebe-Dimmer JL.
  Title
Advances in cancer epidemiology: understanding causal mechanisms and the evidence for implementing interventions.
  Journal
Annu Rev Public Health 26:37-60 (2005)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144402
Reference
PMID:15660110 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Luch A.
  Title
Nature and nurture - lessons from chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 5:113-25 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1546
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
  Journal
McGraw Hill Education

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