KEGG   DISEASE: H00022Help
Entry
H00022                      Disease                                

Name
Bladder cancer
Description
The urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carcinoma are bladder carcinomas, and urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter account for only approximately 7% of the total. Urothelial tumours arise and evolve through divergent phenotypic pathways. Some tumours progress from urothelial hyperplasia to low-grade non-invasive superficial papillary tumours. More aggressive variants arise either from flat, high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and progress to invasive tumours, or they arise de novo as invasive tumours. Low-grade papillary tumors frequently show a constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras pathway, exhibiting activating mutations in the HRAS and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes. In contrast, CIS and invasive tumors frequently show alterations in the TP53 and RB genes and pathways. Invasion and metastases are promoted by several factors that alter the tumour microenvironment, including the aberrant expression of  E-cadherins (E-cad), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
Category
Cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Bladder cancer
MicroRNAs in cancer
Gene
H-ras (activating mutation) [HSA:3265] [KO:K02833]
FGFR3 (activating mutation) [HSA:2261] [KO:K05094]
p16/INK4A (homozygous deletion or hypermethylation) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
p53 (inactivating mutation or deletion) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
RB1 (deletion or hyperphosphorylation) [HSA:5925] [KO:K06618]
EGFR (overexpression) [HSA:1956] [KO:K04361]
ERBB2 (overexpression) [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
RASSF1 (hypermethylation) [HSA:11186] [KO:K09850]
DAPK1 (hypermethylation) [HSA:1612] [KO:K08803]
Carcinogen
Aluminium production
4-Aminobiphenyl [CPD:C10998]
Arsenic in drinking-water
Auramine, manufacture of
Benzidine [CPD:C16444]
Benzo[a]pyrene [CPD:C07535]
N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine (Chlornaphazine)
Coal gasification
Coal-tar pitches [CPD:C16451]
Coal-tars [DR:D03573]
Herbal remedies containing plant species of the genus Aristolochia
Magenta, manufacture of
2-Naphthylamine [CPD:C02227]
Paving and roofing with coal-tar pitch
Radium-224 and its decay products [CPD:C16455]
Schistosoma haematobium (infection with)
Shale-oils [CPD:C16458]
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
X- and gamma-radiation
Marker
BTA (Complement factor H-related protein) [HSA:3078 3080 10878 10877 81494]
BTA (Complement factor H) [HSA:3075]
NMP22 [HSA:4926]
Survivin [HSA:332]
CY20 [HSA:54474]
Cytokeratin 8 [HSA:3856]
Cytokeratin 18 [HSA:3875]
Cytokeratin 19 [HSA:3880]
Hyaluronic acid [GL:G10505]
HAase (hyaluronidase) [HSA:10724]
Telomerase [HSA:7015]
CEA [HSA:1048]
Hemoglobin [HSA:3039 3040 3043]
Drug
Intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
Thiotepa [DR:D00583]
Methotrexate [DG:DG00681]
Vinblastine [DG:DG00689]
Doxorubicin (adriamycin) [DG:DG00696]
Cisplatin (M-VAC) [DR:D00275]
CMV
Comment
ICD-O: 8120/3, Tumor type: Infiltrating urothelial carcinoma
ICD-O: 8120/2, Tumor type: Urothelial carcinoma in situ
ICD-O: 8130/23, Tumor type: Non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma, high grade
ICD-O: 8130/21, Tumor type: Non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma, low grade
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:16110317 (tumor type)
  Authors
Wu XR.
  Title
Urothelial tumorigenesis: a tale of divergent pathways.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 5:713-25 (2005)
Reference
PMID:17149381 (gene)
  Authors
Sugano K, Kakizoe T.
  Title
Genetic alterations in bladder cancer and their clinical applications in molecular tumor staging.
  Journal
Nat Clin Pract Urol 3:642-52 (2006)
Reference
PMID:16474624 (gene)
  Authors
Wolff EM, Liang G, Jones PA.
  Title
Mechanisms of Disease: genetic and epigenetic alterations that drive bladder cancer.
  Journal
Nat Clin Pract Urol 2:502-10 (2005)
Reference
PMID:17158541 (gene)
  Authors
Mitra AP, Datar RH, Cote RJ.
  Title
Molecular pathways in invasive bladder cancer: new insights into mechanisms, progression, and target identification.
  Journal
J Clin Oncol 24:5552-64 (2006)
Reference
PMID:15760280 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Schottenfeld D, Beebe-Dimmer JL.
  Title
Advances in cancer epidemiology: understanding causal mechanisms and the evidence for implementing interventions.
  Journal
Annu Rev Public Health 26:37-60 (2005)
Reference
PMID:9498904 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P.
  Title
Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
  Journal
Cancer Causes Control 8:444-72 (1997)
Reference
PMID:15660110 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Luch A.
  Title
Nature and nurture - lessons from chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 5:113-25 (2005)
Reference
PMID:11473382 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Burger MS, Torino JL, Swaminathan S.
  Title
DNA damage in human transitional cell carcinoma cells after exposure to the proximate metabolite of the bladder carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl.
  Journal
Environ Mol Mutagen 38:1-11 (2001)
Reference
PMID:14643412 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Rossman TG.
  Title
Mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis: an integrated approach.
  Journal
Mutat Res 533:37-65 (2003)
Reference
PMID:9498898 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Vineis P, Pirastu R.
  Title
Aromatic amines and cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Causes Control 8:346-55 (1997)
Reference
PMID:14648102 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Golka K, Wiese A, Assennato G, Bolt HM.
  Title
Occupational exposure and urological cancer.
  Journal
World J Urol 21:382-91 (2004)
Reference
PMID:17530489 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Abnet CC.
  Title
Carcinogenic food contaminants.
  Journal
Cancer Invest 25:189-96 (2007)
Reference
PMID:17195421 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Olfert SM, Felknor SA, Delclos GL.
  Title
An updated review of the literature: risk factors for bladder cancer with focus on occupational exposures.
  Journal
South Med J 99:1256-63 (2006)
Reference
PMID:11886955 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Verma DK, Purdham JT, Roels HA.
  Title
Translating evidence about occupational conditions into strategies for prevention.
  Journal
Occup Environ Med 59:205-13; quiz 214 (2002)
Reference
PMID:12505369 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Nortier JL, Vanherweghem JL.
  Title
Renal interstitial fibrosis and urothelial carcinoma associated with the use of a Chinese herb (Aristolochia fangchi).
  Journal
Toxicology 181-182:577-80 (2002)
Reference
PMID:14672753 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Zhou S, Koh HL, Gao Y, Gong ZY, Lee EJ.
  Title
Herbal bioactivation: the good, the bad and the ugly.
  Journal
Life Sci 74:935-68 (2004)
Reference
PMID:10723042 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Stern FB, Ruder AM, Chen G.
  Title
Proportionate mortality among unionized roofers and waterproofers.
  Journal
Am J Ind Med 37:478-92 (2000)
Reference
PMID:10564925 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Nekolla EA, Kellerer AM, Kuse-Isingschulte M, Eder E, Spiess H.
  Title
Malignancies in patients treated with high doses of radium-224.
  Journal
Radiat Res 152:S3-7 (1999)
Reference
PMID:15489140 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Wogan GN, Hecht SS, Felton JS, Conney AH, Loeb LA.
  Title
Environmental and chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 14:473-86 (2004)
Reference
PMID:15552776 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K.
  Title
Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 45 Suppl 2:S3-9 (2004)
Reference
PMID:15070562 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Darby S.
  Title
Risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays: estimates for the UK and 14 other countries.
  Journal
Lancet 363:345-51 (2004)
Reference
PMID:17158538 (marker)
  Authors
Black PC, Brown GA, Dinney CP.
  Title
Molecular markers of urothelial cancer and their use in the monitoring of superficial urothelial cancer.
  Journal
J Clin Oncol 24:5528-35 (2006)
Reference
PMID:16818187 (marker)
  Authors
Konety BR.
  Title
Molecular markers in bladder cancer: a critical appraisal.
  Journal
Urol Oncol 24:326-37 (2006)
Reference
PMID:15925067 (marker)
  Authors
van Rhijn BW, van der Poel HG, van der Kwast TH.
  Title
Urine markers for bladder cancer surveillance: a systematic review.
  Journal
Eur Urol 47:736-48 (2005)
Reference
PMID:16399415 (marker)
  Authors
Lokeshwar VB, Habuchi T, Grossman HB, Murphy WM, Hautmann SH, Hemstreet GP 3rd, Bono AV, Getzenberg RH, Goebell P, Schmitz-Drager BJ, Schalken JA, Fradet Y, Marberger M, Messing E, Droller MJ.
  Title
Bladder tumor markers beyond cytology: International Consensus Panel on bladder tumor markers.
  Journal
Urology 66:35-63 (2005)
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, Tierney LM (ed).
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2007, Forty-Sixth Edition
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2007)

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