KEGG   DISEASE: Prostate cancerHelp
H00024                      Disease                                

Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of key molecular alterations in prostate-cancer cells implicates carcinogen defenses (GSTP1), growth-factor-signaling pathways (NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27), and androgens (AR) as critical determinants of the phenotype of prostate-cancer cells. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1) are detoxifying enzymes. Cells of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, devoid of GSTP1, undergo genomic damage mediated by carcinogens. NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27 regulate the growth and survival of prostate cells in the normal prostate. Inadequate levels of PTEN and NKX3.1 lead to a reduction in p27 levels and to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is normally activated by its androgen ligand. During androgen withdrawal therapy, the AR signal transduction pathway also could be activated by amplification of the AR gene, by AR gene mutations, or by altered activity of AR coactivators. Through these mechanisms, tumor cells lead to the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
  Cancers of male genital organs
   H00024  Prostate cancer
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 2. Neoplasms (C00-D48)
  C60-C63  Malignant neoplasms of male genital organs
   C61  Malignant neoplasm of prostate
    H00024  Prostate cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 Commonly used tumor markers
Cancer-accociated carbohydrates [br08441.html]
BRITE hierarchy
Prostate cancer
Transcriptional misregulation in cancers
MicroRNAs in cancer
AR (amplification, mutation) [HSA:367] [KO:K08557]
CDKN1B (allelic loss) [HSA:1027] [KO:K06624]
NKX3.1 (allelic loss) (decreased expression) [HSA:4824] [KO:K09348]
PTEN (allelic loss) [HSA:5728] [KO:K01110]
GSTP1 (hypermethylation) [HSA:2950] [KO:K00799]
TMPRSS2-ERG (translocation) [HSA:7113 2078] [KO:K09633 K09435]
TMPRSS2-ETV1 (translocation) [HSA:7113 2115] [KO:K09633 K09431]
TMPRSS2-ETV4 (translocation) [HSA:7113 2118] [KO:K09633 K15592]
TMPRSS2-ETV5 (translocaiton) [HSA:7113 2119] [KO:K09633 K15593]
SLC45A3-ETV1 (translocation) [HSA:85414 2115] [KO:K15379 K09431]
SLC45A3-ELK4 (translocation) [HSA:85414 2005] [KO:K15379 K04376]
DDX5-ETV4 (translocaiton) [HSA:1655 2118] [KO:K12823 K15592]
Cadmium and cadmium compounds [CPD:C01413]
Chimney sweeping
Circulating tumor cells of epithelial origin
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) [HSA:354] [KO:K01351]
Leuprolide [DR:D00989]
Goserelin [DG:DG00731]
Triptorelin [DG:DG00732]
Degarelix [DG:DG00736]
Flutamide [DR:D00586]
Bicalutamide [DR:D00961]
Nilutamide [DR:D00965]
ICD-O: 8140/3, Tumor type: Adenocarcinoma (acinar)
ICD-O: 8148/2, Tumor type: Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, glade III (PIN III)
Other DBs
PMID:12878745 (gene, tumor type)
Nelson WG, De Marzo AM, Isaacs WB.
Prostate cancer.
N Engl J Med 349:366-81 (2003)
PMID:17384581 (gene, tumor type)
De Marzo AM, Platz EA, Sutcliffe S, Xu J, Gronberg H, Drake CG, Nakai Y, Isaacs WB, Nelson WG.
Inflammation in prostate carcinogenesis.
Nat Rev Cancer 7:256-69 (2007)
PMID:11018010 (tumor type)
Abate-Shen C, Shen MM.
Molecular genetics of prostate cancer.
Genes Dev 14:2410-34 (2000)
PMID:15149739 (gene)
Porkka KP, Visakorpi T.
Molecular mechanisms of prostate cancer.
Eur Urol 45:683-91 (2004)
PMID:19406209 (gene)
Brenner JC, Chinnaiyan AM
Translocations in epithelial cancers.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1796:201-15 (2009)
PMID:15660110 (carcinogen)
Luch A.
Nature and nurture - lessons from chemical carcinogenesis.
Nat Rev Cancer 5:113-25 (2005)
PMID:9498904 (carcinogen)
Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P.
Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
Cancer Causes Control 8:444-72 (1997)
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
McGraw Hill Education

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