KEGG   DISEASE: Breast cancerHelp
H00031                      Disease                                

Breast cancer
Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy in women worldwide and is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality. More than 1-2 million cases are diagnosed every year, affecting 10-12% of the female population and accounting for 500 000 deaths per year worldwide. Approximately 5-10% are thought to be inherited. The hereditary breast cancer syndrome includes genetic alterations in various susceptibility genes such as p53, PTEN, BRCA1, and BRCA2. Sporadic breast cancers result from a serial stepwise accumulation of acquired and uncorrected mutations in somatic genes, without any germline mutation playing a role. Oncogenes that have been reported to play an early role in sporadic breast cancer are MYC, CCND1 (Cyclin D1) and ERBB2 (HER2/neu). In sporadic breast cancer, mutational inactivation of BRCA1/2 is rare. However, non-mutational functional suppression could result from various mechanisms, such as hypermethylation of the BRCA1 promoter.
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
  Cancers of the breast and female genital organs
   H00031  Breast cancer
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 2. Neoplasms (C00-D48)
  C50-C50  Malignant neoplasm of breast
   C50  Malignant neoplasm of breast
    H00031  Breast cancer
Tumor markers [br08442.html]
 Commonly used tumor markers
Cancer-accociated carbohydrates [br08441.html]
BRITE hierarchy
MicroRNAs in cancer
BRCA1 (germline mutation, hypermethylation) [HSA:672] [KO:K10605]
BRCA2 (germline mutation) [HSA:675] [KO:K08775]
p53 (mutation) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
RB1 (underexpression) [HSA:5925] [KO:K06618]
PTEN (germline mutation) [HSA:5728] [KO:K01110]
c-MYC (overexpression) [HSA:4609] [KO:K04377]
ERBB2 (overexpression) [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
CDH1 (mutation) [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
CCND1 (overexpression) [HSA:595] [KO:K04503]
Estrogen-progestogen menopausal therapy (combined)
Estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (combined)
Estrogen therapy, postmenopausal
Oral contraceptives, sequential
Radium-224 and its decay products
X- and gamma-radiation
CA15-3/CA27.29 [HSA:4582] [KO:K06568] [GL:G00242]
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) [HSA:634] [KO:K06499]
Circulating tumor cells of epithelial origin
Estrogen receptor (ER) / progesterone receptor (PR) [HSA:2099 2100] [KO:K08550 K08551] [HSA:5241] [KO:K08556]
HER2/neu gene amplification or protein overexpression [HSA:2064] [KO:K05083]
Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) [HSA:5328 5054] [KO:K01348 K03982]
Tamoxifen [DG:DG00734]
Anastrozole [DR:D00960]
Letrozole [DR:D00964]
Exemestane [DR:D00963]
Doxorubicin [DG:DG00696]
Cyclophosphamide [DG:DG00675]
Docetaxel [DG:DG00694]
Paclitaxel [DG:DG01430]
Trastuzumab [DG:DG01358]
Carboplatin [DR:D01363]
ICD-O: 8500/3, Tumor type: Invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified
ICD-O: 8520/3, Tumor type: Invasive lobular carcinoma
Other DBs
PMID:10448115 (gene, tumor type)
Ingvarsson S.
Molecular genetics of breast cancer progression.
Semin Cancer Biol 9:277-88 (1999)
PMID:15351094 (gene)
Kenemans P, Verstraeten RA, Verheijen RH.
Oncogenic pathways in hereditary and sporadic breast cancer.
Maturitas 49:34-43 (2004)
PMID:17464097 (carcinogen)
Ito K.
Hormone replacement therapy and cancers: the biological roles of estrogen and progestin in tumorigenesis are different between the endometrium and breast.
Tohoku J Exp Med 212:1-12 (2007)
PMID:17135036 (carcinogen)
Schmidt JW, Wollner D, Curcio J, Riedlinger J, Kim LS.
Hormone replacement therapy in menopausal women: Past problems and future possibilities.
Gynecol Endocrinol 22:564-77 (2006)
PMID:15192054 (carcinogen)
Hormones and breast cancer.
Hum Reprod Update 10:281-93 (2004)
PMID:14534338 (carcinogen)
Petitti DB.
Clinical practice. Combination estrogen-progestin oral contraceptives.
N Engl J Med 349:1443-50 (2003)
PMID:16278609 (carcinogen)
Shah NR, Borenstein J, Dubois RW.
Postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: a systematic review  and meta-analysis.
Menopause 12:668-78 (2005)
PMID:10564925 (carcinogen)
Nekolla EA, Kellerer AM, Kuse-Isingschulte M, Eder E, Spiess H.
Malignancies in patients treated with high doses of radium-224.
Radiat Res 152:S3-7 (1999)
PMID:15070562 (carcinogen)
Berrington de Gonzalez A, Darby S.
Risk of cancer from diagnostic X-rays: estimates for the UK and 14 other countries.
Lancet 363:345-51 (2004)
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
McGraw Hill Education

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