KEGG   DISEASE: H00044Help
Entry
H00044                      Disease                                

Name
Cancer of the anal canal
Description
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal accounts for 1.5 per cent of all digestive system cancers in the USA, with an estimated 4,660 new cases and 660 deaths in 2006. Epidemiological and molecular-biology studies have now shown that sexually transmitted infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most important aetiological agent. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is also associated with anal cancer. HPV infection is transient in most immunocompetent individuals, but HIV-positive patients have evidence of persistent HPV infection within the anal canal. Current data suggest that mutations in p53, DCC and APC tumor suppressor genes contribute to the stepwise progression of anal squamous cell carcinoma in immunocompetent individuals.
Category
Cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Viral carcinogenesis
Gene
p53 (mutation) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
DCC (mutation) [HSA:1630] [KO:K06765]
APC (mutation) [HSA:324] [KO:K02085]
Carcinogen
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
Pathogen
Human papillomavirus types 16, 18 [VGNM:NC_001526 NC_001357]
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (infection with) [VGNM:NC_001802]
Marker
p63 [HSA:8626]
SCC [HSA:6317]
TPA [HSA:3856 3875 3880]
Drug
Fluorouracil [DG:DG00687]
Mitomycin [DR:D00208]
Cisplatin [DR:D00275]
Doxorubicin [DG:DG00696]
Comment
ICD-O: 8070/3, Tumor type: Squamous cell carcinoma
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:16607677 (gene, carcinogen, tumor type)
  Authors
Gervaz P, Hirschel B, Morel P.
  Title
Molecular biology of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
  Journal
Br J Surg 93:531-8 (2006)
Reference
PMID:12947531 (gene, carcinogen)
  Authors
Gervaz P, Allal AS, Villiger P, Buhler L, Morel P.
  Title
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anus: another sexually transmitted disease.
  Journal
Swiss Med Wkly 133:353-9 (2003)
Reference
PMID:11281434 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Severson J, Evans TY, Lee P, Chan T, Arany I, Tyring SK.
  Title
Human papillomavirus infections: epidemiology, pathogenesis, and therapy.
  Journal
J Cutan Med Surg 5:43-60 (2001)
Reference
PMID:1311142 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Daling JR, Sherman KJ, Hislop TG, Maden C, Mandelson MT, Beckmann AM, Weiss NS.
  Title
Cigarette smoking and the risk of anogenital cancer.
  Journal
Am J Epidemiol 135:180-9 (1992)
Reference
PMID:17255774 (marker)
  Authors
Owens SR, Greenson JK.
  Title
Immunohistochemical staining for p63 is useful in the diagnosis of anal squamous cell carcinomas.
  Journal
Am J Surg Pathol 31:285-90 (2007)
Reference
PMID:9372374 (marker)
  Authors
Indinnimeo M, Reale MG, Cicchini C, Stazi A, Fiori E, Izzo P.
  Title
CEA, TPA, CA 19-9, SCC and CYFRA at diagnosis and in the follow-up of anal canal tumors.
  Journal
Int Surg 82:275-9 (1997)
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Skeel RT (ed).
  Title
Handbook of Cancer Chemotherapy, Sixth Edition
  Journal
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins (2003)

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