KEGG   DISEASE: H00054Help
Entry
H00054                      Disease                                

Name
Nasopharyngeal cancer
Description
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare disease in most parts of the world, with an age-standardised annual incidence of less than 1 per 100000. However, in Southern China, parts of Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean basin, NPC is an endemic disease with an incidence of 10-30 per 100000. Genome-wide studies have unravelled multiple chromosomal abnormalities with involvement of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Alterations of genes such as Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p16/INK4A, p14/ARF suggest that multiple cellular pathways were dysregulated in the NPC cells. Studies on the precancerous lesions revealed early genetic changes and a critical role of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) latent infection in the development of this cancer.
Category
Cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Viral carcinogenesis
Gene
RASSF1 (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:11186] [KO:K09850]
p16/INK4A (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
Bcl-2 (overexpression) [HSA:596] [KO:K02161]
EDNRB (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:1910] [KO:K04198]
TSLC1 (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:23705] [KO:K06781]
E-cadherin (decreased expression) [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
Carcinogen
Formaldehyde [CPD:C00067]
Salted fish (Chinese-style)
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
Wood dust
Pathogen
Epstein-Barr virus
Marker
EBV-DNA
Drug
Cisplatin [DR:D00275]
Fluorouracil [DR:D00584]
Paclitaxel [DR:D00491 D05333]
Cetuximab [DR:D03455]
Comment
ICD-O: 8072/3, Tumor type: Non-keratinizing carcinoma
ICD-O: 8071/3, Tumor type: Keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma
ICD-O: 8083/3, Tumor type: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:15958470 (description, carcinogen)
  Authors
Chan AT
  Title
Head and neck cancer: treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer.
  Journal
Ann Oncol 16 Suppl 2:ii265-8 (2005)
Reference
PMID:12450731 (description, gene, carcinogen)
  Authors
Lo KW, Huang DP.
  Title
Genetic and epigenetic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 12:451-62 (2002)
Reference
PMID:15510157 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Young LS, Rickinson AB.
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68 (2004)
Reference
PMID:15760280 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Schottenfeld D, Beebe-Dimmer JL.
  Title
Advances in cancer epidemiology: understanding causal mechanisms and the evidence for implementing interventions.
  Journal
Annu Rev Public Health 26:37-60 (2005)
Reference
PMID:17033133 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Binetti R, Costamagna FM, Marcello I.
  Title
Development of carcinogenicity classifications and evaluations: the case of formaldehyde.
  Journal
Ann Ist Super Sanita 42:132-43 (2006)
Reference
PMID:16140628 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Cogliano VJ, Grosse Y, Baan RA, Straif K, Secretan MB, El Ghissassi F.
  Title
Meeting report: summary of IARC monographs on formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol.
  Journal
Environ Health Perspect 113:1205-8 (2005)
Reference
PMID:17530489 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Abnet CC.
  Title
Carcinogenic food contaminants.
  Journal
Cancer Invest 25:189-96 (2007)
Reference
PMID:15552776 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K.
  Title
Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 45 Suppl 2:S3-9 (2004)
Reference
PMID:12176778 (marker)
  Authors
Chan AT, Teo PM, Johnson PJ.
  Title
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Ann Oncol 13:1007-15 (2002)
Reference
PMID:12450734 (marker)
  Authors
Chan KC, Lo YM.
  Title
Circulating EBV DNA as a tumor marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 12:489-96 (2002)
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, Tierney LM (ed).
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2007, Forty-Sixth Edition
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2007)

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