KEGG   DISEASE: H00079Help
Entry
H00079                      Disease                                

Name
Asthma
Description
Asthma is a complex syndrome with many clinical phenotypes in both adults and children. Its major characteristics include a variable degree of airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Inhaled allergens encounter antigen presenting cells (APC) that line the airway. Upon recognition of the antigen and activation by APC, naive T cells differentiate into TH2 cells. Activated TH2 stimulate the formation of IgE by B cells. IgE molecules bind to IgE receptors located on mast cells. The crosslinking of mast-cell-bound IgE by allergens leads to the release of biologically active mediators (histamine, leukotrienes) by means of degranulation and, so, to the immediate symptoms of allergy. Mast cells also release chemotactic factors that contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, whose proliferation and differentiation from bone marrow progenitors is promoted by IL-5. The activation of eosinophils leads to release of toxic granules and oxygen free radicals that lead to tissue damage and promote the development of chronic inflammation.
Category
Immune system disease
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Asthma
Gene
IL4 (polymorphism) [HSA:3565] [KO:K05430]
IL4RA (polymorphism) [HSA:3566] [KO:K05071]
IL13 (polymorphism) [HSA:3596] [KO:K05435]
FCER1B (polymorphism) [HSA:2206] [KO:K08090]
TNFA (polymorphism) [HSA:7124] [KO:K03156]
ADAM33 (polymorphism) [HSA:80332] [KO:K08616]
CD14 (polymorphism) [HSA:929] [KO:K04391]
HLA-DRB1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3123] [KO:K06752]
HLA-DQB1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3119] [KO:K06752]
ADRB2 (polymorphism) [HSA:154] [KO:K04142]
Env factor
Particulate matter
Diesel exhaust
NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)
Passive smoking/environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
Ozone
Sulfur dioxide [CPD:C09306]
Marker
NO (exhaled gas) [CPD:C00533]
Drug
Terbutaline [DR:D00688]
Salmeterol [DR:D05792]
Formoterol [DR:D01373 D05277]
Ipratropium bromide [DR:D02212]
Theophylline [DR:D00371 D01712 D06103 D06104]
Budesonide [DR:D00246]
Fluticasone propionate [DR:D01708]
Beclomethasone dipropionate [DR:D00689]
Montelukast [DR:D00529]
Sodium cromoglycate
Nedocromil sodium [DR:D00527]
Omalizumab [DR:D05251]
Cromolyn [DR:D00526]
Albuterol [DR:D02147]
Zafirlukast [DR:D00411]
Comment
Allergen:
Furred pet (cat, dog)
Dust mite
Cockroach
Rodent (rat, mouse)
Mold
Pollen (tree, grass, weed)
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
Reference
PMID:18446588 (description, gene)
  Authors
Warrier MR, Hershey GK.
  Title
Asthma genetics: personalizing medicine.
  Journal
J Asthma 45:257-64 (2008)
Reference
PMID:11172168 (description)
  Authors
Busse WW, Lemanske RF Jr.
  Title
Asthma.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 344:350-62 (2001)
Reference
PMID:18301422 (gene)
  Authors
Vercelli D.
  Title
Discovering susceptibility genes for asthma and allergy.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 8:169-82 (2008)
Reference
PMID:16395390 (gene)
  Authors
Ober C, Hoffjan S.
  Title
Asthma genetics 2006: the long and winding road to gene discovery.
  Journal
Genes Immun 7:95-100 (2006)
Reference
PMID:17050746 (env_factor)
  Authors
Castro-Giner F, Kauffmann F, de Cid R, Kogevinas M.
  Title
Gene-environment interactions in asthma.
  Journal
Occup Environ Med 63:776-86, 761 (2006)
Reference
PMID:18426614 (env_factor, allergen)
  Authors
Diette GB, McCormack MC, Hansel NN, Breysse PN, Matsui EC.
  Title
Environmental issues in managing asthma.
  Journal
Respir Care 53:602-15; discussion 616-7 (2008)
Reference
PMID:16164436 (env_factor)
  Authors
D'Amato G, Liccardi G, D'Amato M, Holgate S.
  Title
Environmental risk factors and allergic bronchial asthma.
  Journal
Clin Exp Allergy 35:1113-24 (2005)
Reference
PMID:17099035 (marker)
  Authors
Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ.
  Title
Exhaled biomarkers.
  Journal
Chest 130:1541-6 (2006)
Reference
PMID:9624291 (marker)
  Authors
Jatakanon A, Lim S, Kharitonov SA, Chung KF, Barnes PJ.
  Title
Correlation between exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils, and methacholine responsiveness in patients with mild asthma.
  Journal
Thorax 53:91-5 (1998)
Reference
PMID:12101782 (marker)
  Authors
Kharitonov SA, Barnes PJ.
  Title
Biomarkers of some pulmonary diseases in exhaled breath.
  Journal
Biomarkers 7:1-32 (2002)
Reference
PMID:15459674 (drug)
  Authors
Barnes PJ.
  Title
New drugs for asthma.
  Journal
Nat Rev Drug Discov 3:831-44 (2004)
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA, Tierney LM (ed).
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2007, Forty-Sixth Edition
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2007)
Reference
PMID:17998995 (drug)
  Authors
Zdanowicz MM.
  Title
Pharmacotherapy of asthma.
  Journal
Am J Pharm Educ 71:98 (2007)
Reference
PMID:15981801 (drug)
  Authors
Makino S, Adachi M, Ago Y, Akiyama K, Baba M, Egashira Y, Fujimura M, Fukuda T, Furusho K, Iikura Y, Inoue H, Ito K, Iwamoto I, Kabe J, Kamikawa Y, Kawakami Y, Kihara N, Kitamura S, Kudo K, Mano K, Matsui T, Mikawa H, Miyagi S, Miyamoto T, Morita Y, Nagasaka Y, Nakagawa T, Nakajima S, Nakazawa T, Nishima S, Ohta K, Okubo T, Sakakibara H, Sano Y, Shinomiya K, Takagi K, Takahashi K, Tamura G, Tomioka H, Yoyoshima K, Tsukioka K, Ueda N, Yamakido M, Hosoi S, Sagara H.
  Title
Pharmacologic control of asthma.
  Journal
Int Arch Allergy Immunol 136 Suppl 1:14-49 (2005)
Reference
PMID:16581556 (allergen)
  Authors
Zeldin DC, Eggleston P, Chapman M, Piedimonte G, Renz H, Peden D.
  Title
How exposures to biologics influence the induction and incidence of asthma.
  Journal
Environ Health Perspect 114:620-6 (2006)

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