KEGG   DISEASE: H00083Help
Entry
H00083                      Disease                                

Name
Allograft rejection
Description
Allograft rejection is the consequence of the recipient's alloimmune response to nonself antigens expressed by donor tissues. After transplantation of organ allografts, there are two pathways of antigen presentation. In the direct pathway, recipient T cells react to intact allogeneic MHC molecules expressed on the surface of donor cells. This pathway would activate host CD4 or CD8 T cells. In contrast, donor MHC molecules (and all other proteins) shed from the graft can be taken up by host APCs and presented to recipient T cells in the context of self-MHC molecules - the indirect pathway. Such presentation activates predominantly CD4 T cells. A direct cytotoxic T-cell attack on graft cells can be made only by T cells that recognize the graft MHC molecules directly. Nontheless, T cells with indirect allospecificity can contribute to graft rejection by activating macrophages, which cause tissue injury and fibrosis, and are also likely to be important in the development of an alloantibody response to graft.
Category
Immune system disease
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Allograft rejection
Gene
TNF-alpha (polymorphism) [HSA:7124] [KO:K03156]
IL-10 (polymorphism) [HSA:3586] [KO:K05443]
TGF-beta (polymorphism) [HSA:7040 7042 7043] [KO:K13375 K13376 K13377]
IFN-gamma (polymorphism) [HSA:3458] [KO:K04687]
HLA-DMA (polymorphism) [HSA:3108] [KO:K06752]
ICAM-1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3383] [KO:K06490]
CTLA4 (polymorphism) [HSA:1493] [KO:K06538]
ACE (polymorphism) [HSA:1636] [KO:K01283]
GPIIIA (polymorphism) [HSA:3690] [KO:K06493]
Env factor
HLA mismatch
Drug
Cyclosporine A (CsA) [DR:D00184]
Tacrolimus (FK506) [DG:DG00439]
Azathioprine (AZA) [DG:DG00743]
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) [DR:D00752 D05094]
Sirolimus (Rapamycin) [DR:D00753]
OKT3 (anti-CD3 antibody) [DR:D05092]
RATG
Methylprednisolone [DG:DG00410]
Prednisone [DG:DG00094]
Daclizumab [DR:D03639]
Basiliximab [DR:D03058]
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
Reference
PMID:11544006 (description, gene)
  Authors
Akalin E, Murphy B.
  Title
Gene polymorphisms and transplantation.
  Journal
Curr Opin Immunol 13:572-6 (2001)
Reference
PMID:15690532 (gene)
  Authors
Warle MC, Metselaar HJ, Hop WC, Tilanus HW.
  Title
Cytokine gene polymorphisms and acute liver graft rejection: a meta-analysis.
  Journal
Liver transpl 11(1):19-26 (2005)
Reference
PMID:12089714 (gene)
  Authors
Warle MC, Farhan A, Metselaar HJ, Hop WC, Perrey C, Zondervan PE, Kap M, de Rave S, Kwekkeboom J, Ijzermans JN, Tilanus HW, Pravica V, Hutchinson IV, Bouma GJ.
  Title
Cytokine gene polymorphisms and acute human liver graft rejection.
  Journal
Liver Transpl 8:603-11 (2002)
Reference
PMID:15848524 (gene)
  Authors
Lacha J, Hribova P, Kotsch K, Brabcova I, Bartosova K, Volk HD, Vitko S.
  Title
Effect of cytokines and chemokines (TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-10, MCP-1, RANTES) gene polymorphisms in kidney recipients on posttransplantation outcome: influence of donor-recipient match.
  Journal
Transplant Proc 37:764-6 (2005)
Reference
PMID:15249346 (drug)
  Authors
Magee CC, Pascual M.
  Title
Update in renal transplantation.
  Journal
Arch Intern Med 164:1373-88 (2004)
Reference
PMID:15635544 (drug)
  Authors
Patel JK, Kobashigawa JA.
  Title
Immunosuppression, diagnosis, and treatment of cardiac allograft rejection.
  Journal
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 16:378-85 (2004)
Reference
PMID:15635537 (drug)
  Authors
Allan JS.
  Title
Immunosuppression for lung transplantation.
  Journal
Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 16:333-41 (2004)
Reference
PMID:15240845 (drug)
  Authors
Encke J, Uhl W, Stremmel W, Sauer P.
  Title
Immunosuppression and modulation in liver transplantation.
  Journal
Nephrol Dial Transplant 19 Suppl 4:iv22-5 (2004)
Reference
PMID:11583484 (env_factor)
  Authors
Paul LC.
  Title
Immunologic risk factors for chronic renal allograft dysfunction.
  Journal
Transplantation 71:SS17-23 (2001)

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