KEGG   DISEASE: H00094Help
Entry
H00094                      Disease                                

Name
Immunodeficiency associated with DNA repair defects, including the following six diseases:
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) [DS:H00064];
Ataxia-talangiectasia-like syndrome;
Nijmegen syndrome [DS:H01344];
DNA ligase I deficiency;
DNA ligase IV deficiency;
Bloom syndrome [DS:H01346]
Description
A number of genetically determined disorders collectively called as the chromosome breakage syndromes or DNA-repair disorders have a characteristic cytogenetic feature, chromosome instability. They are all autosomal recessive, show an increased tendency for chromosomal aberrations and to develop malignancies. Ataxia telangiectasia (AT), Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS), and an ataxia-like disorder (ATLD), are chromosome instability disorders that are defective in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), NBS, and Mre11 genes, respectively. These genes are critical in maintaining cellular resistance to ionizing radiation (IR), which kills largely by the production of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Bloom syndrome involves a defect in the BLM helicase, which seems to play a role in restarting DNA replication forks that are blocked at lesions, thereby promoting chromosome stability. A point mutational change in DNA ligase I was identified in a unique immunodeficient individual who suffered recurrent sinopulmonary infection leading to bronchiectasis. A non-inactivating mutational change in DNA ligase IV has also been identified in a leukaemia patient, who was dramatically over-sensitive to radiotherapy.
Category
Primary immunodeficiency
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Homologous recombination
Gene
ATM [HSA:472] [KO:K04728]
MRE11A [HSA:4361] [KO:K10865]
NBS1(Nibrin) [HSA:4683] [KO:K10867]
LIG1 [HSA:3978] [KO:K10747]
LIG4 [HSA:3981] [KO:K10777]
BLM [HSA:641] [KO:K10901]
Other DBs
Reference
PMID:12427531 (gene)
  Authors
Thompson LH, Schild D
  Title
Recombinational DNA repair and human disease.
  Journal
Mutat Res 509:49-78 (2002)
Reference
PMID:17162365 (gene)
  Authors
Kumar A, Teuber SS, Gershwin ME.
  Title
Current perspectives on primary immunodeficiency diseases.
  Journal
Clin Dev Immunol 13:223-59 (2006)
Reference
PMID:9737224 (gene)
  Authors
Ten RM.
  Title
Primary immunodeficiencies.
  Journal
Mayo Clin Proc 73:865-72 (1998)
Reference
PMID:15096561 (gene)
  Authors
Lim MS, Elenitoba-Johnson KS.
  Title
The molecular pathology of primary immunodeficiencies.
  Journal
J Mol Diagn 6:59-83 (2004)
Reference
PMID:18424339 (gene)
  Authors
Morra M, Geigenmuller U, Curran J, Rainville IR, Brennan T, Curtis J, Reichert V, Hovhannisyan H, Majzoub J, Miller DT.
  Title
Genetic diagnosis of primary immune deficiencies.
  Journal
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 28:387-412, x (2008)
Reference
PMID:17952897 (gene)
  Authors
Geha RS, Notarangelo LD, Casanova JL, Chapel H, Conley ME, Fischer A, Hammarstrom L, Nonoyama S, Ochs HD, Puck JM, Roifman C, Seger R, Wedgwood J.
  Title
Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update from the International Union of Immunological Societies Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Classification Committee.
  Journal
J Allergy Clin Immunol 120:776-94 (2007)

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