KEGG   DISEASE: H00295Help
Entry
H00295                      Disease                                

Name
Viral myocarditis
Description
Myocarditis is clinically defined as cardiac disease associated with inflammation of the myocardium and necrosis and/or degeneration of adjacent myocytes in the absence of an ischemic event. Most often, myocarditis results from common viral infections; less commonly, specific forms of myocarditis may result from other pathogens, toxic or hypersensitivity drug reactions, giant-cell myocarditis, or sarcoidosis. More than 20 common viruses, including coxsackieviruses, adenoviruses, influenza viruses, cytomegaloviruses, and human immunodeficiency virus, have been associated with myocarditis in humans. However, coxsackieviruses are considered the dominant cause of myocarditis, particularly in neonates and young children. After the acute phase caused by direct cytopathic effects of the virus, a small proportion of patients subsequently develop autoimmune- mediated, chronic myocarditis [4], accompanied by circulating autoantibodies to cardiac myosin and other heart antigens, which can sometimes lead to heart failure and death associated with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Genetic linkage between susceptibility to myocarditis/DCM and the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes has been reported in both humans and experimentally induced mouse models.
Category
Cardiovascular disease
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Viral myocarditis
Gene
HLA-DQB1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3119] [KO:K06752]
Pathogen
Coxsackievirus B3
Adenovirus
Cytomegalovirus
Parvovirus B19
Hepatitis C-virus [VGNM:NC_004102]
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [VGNM:NC_001802 NC_001722]
Epstein-Barr virus
Influenza virus
Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV6) [VGNM:NC_001664 NC_000898]
Echovirus
Marker
Viral genome
Creatinine kinase-MB fraction
troponin I [HSA:7137]
troponin T [HSA:7139]
C-reactive protein [HSA:1401]
Drug
Interferon-beta [DR:D00746 D03304 D04554]
Prednisone [DR:D00473 D08416]
Azathioprine [DR:D00238 D03033]
Cyclosporine [DR:D00184]
Corticosteroid
Intravenous immune globulin [DR:D04516]
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
Reference
PMID:19127454 (gene)
  Authors
Portig I, Sandmoeller A, Kreilinger S, Maisch B
  Title
HLA-DQB1* polymorphism and associations with dilated cardiomyopathy, inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy and myocarditis.
  Journal
Autoimmunity 42:33-40 (2009)
Reference
PMID:18190873 (gene)
  Authors
Li HS, Ligons DL, Rose NR
  Title
Genetic complexity of autoimmune myocarditis.
  Journal
Autoimmun Rev 7:168-73 (2008)
Reference
PMID:8793712 (env_factor, marker, drug)
  Authors
Fairley CK, Ryan M, Wall PG, Weinberg J
  Title
The organisms reported to cause infective myocarditis and pericarditis in England and Wales.
  Journal
J Infect 32:223-5 (1996)
Reference
PMID:18617482 (env_factor)
  Authors
Dennert R, Crijns HJ, Heymans S
  Title
Acute viral myocarditis.
  Journal
Eur Heart J (2008)
Reference
PMID:17575480 (env_factor, marker)
  Authors
Ellis CR, Di Salvo T
  Title
Myocarditis: basic and clinical aspects.
  Journal
Cardiol Rev 15:170-7 (2007)
Reference
PMID:19357408 (marker,drug)
  Authors
Cooper LT Jr
  Title
Myocarditis.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 360:1526-38 (2009)
Reference
PMID:11524405 (marker,drug)
  Authors
Liu PP, Mason JW
  Title
Advances in the understanding of myocarditis.
  Journal
Circulation 104:1076-82 (2001)
Reference
PMID:16106325 (marker,drug)
  Authors
Burian J, Buser P, Eriksson U
  Title
Myocarditis: the immunologist's view on pathogenesis and treatment.
  Journal
Swiss Med Wkly 135:359-64 (2005)
Reference
PMID:16476862 (marker,drug)
  Authors
Magnani JW, Dec GW
  Title
Myocarditis: current trends in diagnosis and treatment.
  Journal
Circulation 113:876-90 (2006)

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