KEGG   DISEASE: H00344Help
Entry
H00344                      Disease                                

Name
Leprosy;
Hansen disease
Description
Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is still one of the main causes of physical disability worldwide. The new case detection rate remains high, with about 250 000 new cases being registered each year. Infection leads to chronic granulomatous inflammation in skin and peripheral nerves and resulting disability brings about social disadvantage for patients and their family members.
Category
Infectious disease
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Antigen processing and presentation
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction
Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
Gene
HLA; human leucocyte antigens [HSA:3105 3106 3107 3133 3134 3135] [KO:K06751]
TLR1 (polymorphism) [HSA:7096] [KO:K05398]
TLR2 (polymorphism) [HSA:7097] [KO:K10159]
LTA; lymphotoxin alpha (polymorphism) [HSA:4049] [KO:K05468]
PRKN (polymorphism) [HSA:5071] [KO:K04556]
Pathogen
Mycobacterium leprae [GN:mle] (from India)
Mycobacterium leprae [GN:mlb] (from Brazil)
Marker
M. leprae phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-1) (dipstick, ELISA, ML Flow test)
Drug
Dapsone [DR:D00592]
Rifampin [DR:D00211]
Clofazimine [DR:D00278]
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
OMIM: 
MedlinePlus: 
Reference
PMID:21616456 (description, drug, marker)
  Authors
Rodrigues LC, Lockwood DNj
  Title
Leprosy now: epidemiology, progress, challenges, and research gaps.
  Journal
Lancet Infect Dis 11:464-70 (2011)
Reference
PMID:15337986 (description, marker)
  Authors
Moschella SL
  Title
An update on the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy.
  Journal
J Am Acad Dermatol 51:417-26 (2004)
Reference
PMID:21585261 (description)
  Authors
Cardoso CC, Pereira AC, de Sales Marques C, Moraes MO
  Title
Leprosy susceptibility: genetic variations regulate innate and adaptive immunity, and disease outcome.
  Journal
Future Microbiol 6:533-49 (2011)
Reference
PMID:16728267 (gene)
  Authors
Geluk A, Ottenhoff TH
  Title
HLA and leprosy in the pre and postgenomic eras.
  Journal
Hum Immunol 67:439-45 (2006)
Reference
PMID:17548585 (gene)
  Authors
Johnson CM, Lyle EA, Omueti KO, Stepensky VA, Yegin O, Alpsoy E, Hamann L, Schumann RR, Tapping RI
  Title
Cutting edge: A common polymorphism impairs cell surface trafficking and functional responses of TLR1 but protects against leprosy.
  Journal
J Immunol 178:7520-4 (2007)
Reference
PMID:15726416 (gene)
  Authors
Malhotra D, Relhan V, Reddy BS, Bamezai R
  Title
TLR2 Arg677Trp polymorphism in leprosy: revisited.
  Journal
Hum Genet 116:413-5 (2005)
Reference
PMID:17353895 (gene)
  Authors
Alcais A, Alter A, Antoni G, Orlova M, Nguyen VT, Singh M, Vanderborght PR, Katoch K, Mira MT, Vu HT, Ngyuen TH, Nguyen NB, Moraes M, Mehra N, Schurr E, Abel L
  Title
Stepwise replication identifies a low-producing lymphotoxin-alpha allele as a major risk factor for early-onset leprosy.
  Journal
Nat Genet 39:517-22 (2007)
Reference
PMID:14737177 (gene)
  Authors
Mira MT, Alcais A, Nguyen VT, Moraes MO, Di Flumeri C, Vu HT, Mai CP, Nguyen TH, Nguyen NB, Pham XK, Sarno EN, Alter A, Montpetit A, Moraes ME, Moraes JR, Dore C, Gallant CJ, Lepage P, Verner A, Van De Vosse E, Hudson TJ, Abel L, Schurr E
  Title
Susceptibility to leprosy is associated with PARK2 and PACRG.
  Journal
Nature 427:636-40 (2004)

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