KEGG   DISEASE: Type II diabetes mellitusHelp
Entry
H00409                      Disease                                

Name
Type II diabetes mellitus
Description
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance of peripheral tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue) and insufficient compensatory insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Both insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are thought to result from the complex interplay of many different pathways under the combined control of environmental and genetic factors. It is accepted that T2DM results from population aging and adverse environmental factors of the modern world which favor the development of obesity.
Category
Metabolic disease; Endocrine disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Endocrine and metabolic diseases
  Diabetes
   H00409  Type II diabetes mellitus
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 4. Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90)
  E10-E14  Diabetes mellitus
   E11  Type 2 diabetes mellitus
    H00409  Type II diabetes mellitus
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Cell cycle
p53 signaling pathway
TGF-beta signaling pathway
Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Insulin secretion
Type II diabetes mellitus
Pancreatic secretion
Notch signaling pathway
PPAR signaling pathway
Wnt signaling pathway
Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
Gene
CDKN2A (polymorphism) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
CDKN2B (polymorphism) [HSA:1030] [KO:K04685]
IGF2BP2 (polymorphism) [HSA:10644] [KO:K17392]
CAPN10 (polymorphism) [HSA:11132] [KO:K08579]
SLC30A8 (polymorphism) [HSA:169026] [KO:K14695]
JAZF1 (polymorphism) [HSA:221895] [KO:K19495]
HHEX (polymorphism) [HSA:3087] [KO:K08024]
KCNJ11 (polymorphism) [HSA:3767] [KO:K05004]
KCNQ1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3784] [KO:K04926]
MTNR1B (polymorphism) [HSA:4544] [KO:K04286]
NOTCH2 (polymorphism) [HSA:4853] [KO:K20994]
ENPP1 (polymorphism) [HSA:5167] [KO:K01513]
PPARG (polymorphism) [HSA:5468] [KO:K08530]
CDKAL1 (polymorphism) [HSA:54901] [KO:K15865]
ADAMTS9 (polymorphism) [HSA:56999] [KO:K08624]
HNF1B (polymorphism) [HSA:6928] [KO:K08034]
TCF7L2 (polymorphism) [HSA:6934] [KO:K04491]
WFS1 (polymorphism) [HSA:7466] [KO:K14020]
FTO (polymorphism) [HSA:79068] [KO:K19469]
Drug
Insulin human [DR:D03230]
Insulin lispro [DR:D04477]
Insulin aspart [DR:D04475]
Insulin glulisine [DR:D04540]
Insulin glargine [DR:D03250]
Insulin detemir [DR:D04539]
Insulin glargine - lixisenatide mixt [DR:D11034]
Metformin hydrochloride [DR:D00944]
Glyburide [DR:D00336]
Chlorpropamide [DR:D00271]
Tolbutamide [DR:D00380]
Tolazamide [DR:D00379]
Glipizide [DR:D00335]
Glimepiride [DR:D00593]
Glipizide - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10265]
Glyburide - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10266]
Metformin hydrochloride - rosiglitazone maleate mixt [DR:D10244]
Pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride tablets [DR:D09744]
Pioglitazone hydrochloride and glimepiride tablets [DR:D09848]
Metformin hydrochloride - sitagliptin phosphate mixt [DR:D10261]
Alogliptin benzoate - pioglitazone hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10159]
Metformin hydrochloride - saxagliptin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10263]
Linagliptin - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10264]
Alogliptin benzoate - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10253]
Metformin hydrochloride - repaglinide mixt [DR:D10500]
Dapagliflozin - metformin mixt [DR:D10586]
Canagliflozin - metformin mixt [DR:D10587]
Empagliflozin - linagliptin mixt [DR:D10588]
Empagliflozin - metformin mixt [DR:D10752]
Saxagliptin - dapagliflozin mixt [DR:D10826]
Acarbose [DR:D00216]
Miglitol [DR:D00625]
Rosiglitazone maleate [DR:D00596]
Pioglitazone hydrochloride [DR:D00945]
Sitagliptin phosphate [DR:D06645]
Alogliptin benzoate [DR:D06553]
Linagliptin [DR:D09566]
Exenatide [DR:D04121]
Liraglutide [DR:D06404]
Lixisenatide [DR:D09729]
Albiglutide [DR:D08843]
Dulaglutide [DR:D09889]
Semaglutide [DR:D10025]
Dapagliflozin propanediol [DR:D09763]
Canagliflozin [DR:D09592]
Empagliflozin [DR:D10459]
Repaglinide [DR:D00594]
Nateglinide [DR:D01111]
Colesevelam hydrochloride [DR:D03582]
Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate [DR:D09756]
Anagliptin [DR:D09780]
Mitiglinide calcium hydrate - voglibose mixt [DR:D10160]
Trelagliptin succinate [DR:D10179]
Omarigliptin [DR:D10317]
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
OMIM: 
Reference
PMID:19749172 (gene)
  Authors
Staiger H, Machicao F, Fritsche A, Haring HU
  Title
Pathomechanisms of type 2 diabetes genes.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 30:557-85 (2009)
DOI:10.1210/er.2009-0017
Reference
PMID:18782870 (gene)
  Authors
Florez JC
  Title
Clinical review: the genetics of type 2 diabetes: a realistic appraisal in 2008.
  Journal
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4633-42 (2008)
DOI:10.1210/jc.2008-1345
Reference
PMID:18762020 (gene)
  Authors
Doria A, Patti ME, Kahn CR
  Title
The emerging genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.
  Journal
Cell Metab 8:186-200 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2008.08.006

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