KEGG   DISEASE: H00409Help
Entry
H00409                      Disease                                

Name
Type II diabetes mellitus
Description
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance of peripheral tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue) and insufficient compensatory insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Both insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are thought to result from the complex interplay of many different pathways under the combined control of environmental and genetic factors. It is accepted that T2DM results from population aging and adverse environmental factors of the modern world which favor the development of obesity.
Category
Metabolic disease; Endocrine disease
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
Cell cycle
p53 signaling pathway
TGF-beta signaling pathway
Maturity onset diabetes of the young
Insulin secretion
Type II diabetes mellitus
Pancreatic secretion
Notch signaling pathway
PPAR signaling pathway
Wnt signaling pathway
Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
Gene
CDKN2A (polymorphism) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
CDKN2B (polymorphism) [HSA:1030] [KO:K04685]
IGF2BP2 (polymorphism) [HSA:10644] [KO:K17392]
CAPN10 (polymorphism) [HSA:11132] [KO:K08579]
SLC30A8 (polymorphism) [HSA:169026] [KO:K14695]
JAZF1 (polymorphism) [HSA:221895]
HHEX (polymorphism) [HSA:3087] [KO:K08024]
KCNJ11 (polymorphism) [HSA:3767] [KO:K05004]
KCNQ1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3784] [KO:K04926]
MTNR1B (polymorphism) [HSA:4544] [KO:K04286]
NOTCH2 (polymorphism) [HSA:4853] [KO:K02599]
ENPP1 (polymorphism) [HSA:5167] [KO:K01513]
PPARG (polymorphism) [HSA:5468] [KO:K08530]
CDKAL1 (polymorphism) [HSA:54901] [KO:K15865]
ADAMTS9 (polymorphism) [HSA:56999] [KO:K08624]
HNF1B (polymorphism) [HSA:6928] [KO:K08034]
TCF7L2 (polymorphism) [HSA:6934] [KO:K04491]
WFS1 (polymorphism) [HSA:7466] [KO:K14020]
FTO (polymorphism) [HSA:79068]
Drug
Glibenclamide [DR:D00336] (sulfonylureas)
Metformin [DR:D00944] (biguanides)
Acarbose [DR:D00216] (alpha-glucosidase inhibitors)
Pioglitazone [DR:D00945] (thiazolidinediones)
Nateglinide [DR:D01111] (glinides)
Glybuzole [DR:D01210] (sulfonamides)
Other DBs
ICD-10: 
MeSH: 
OMIM: 
Reference
PMID:19749172 (gene)
  Authors
Staiger H, Machicao F, Fritsche A, Haring HU
  Title
Pathomechanisms of type 2 diabetes genes.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 30:557-85 (2009)
Reference
PMID:18782870 (gene)
  Authors
Florez JC
  Title
Clinical review: the genetics of type 2 diabetes: a realistic appraisal in 2008.
  Journal
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4633-42 (2008)
Reference
PMID:18762020 (gene)
  Authors
Doria A, Patti ME, Kahn CR
  Title
The emerging genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.
  Journal
Cell Metab 8:186-200 (2008)

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