KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.1.365Help
Entry
EC 1.1.1.365                Enzyme                                 

Name
D-galacturonate reductase;
GalUR;
gar1 (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
L-galactonate:NADP+ oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
L-galactonate + NADP+ = D-galacturonate + NADPH + H+ [RN:R07676]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
L-galactonate [CPD:C15930];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006]
Product
D-galacturonate [CPD:C00333];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
The enzyme from plants is involved in ascorbic acid (vitamin C) biosynthesis [1,2]. The enzyme from the fungus Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) is involved in a eukaryotic degradation pathway of D-galacturonate. It is also active with D-glucuronate and glyceraldehyde [3]. Neither enzyme shows any activity with NADH.
History
EC 1.1.1.365 created 2013
Pathway
Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K19634  
D-galacturonate reductase
K19642  
D-galacturonate reductase
Genes
TCC: 
EGR: 
FVE: 
PPER: 
PMUM: 
MDM: 
PXB: 
CSV: 
CMO: 
VVI: 
SLY: 
TRE: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:13363799]
  Authors
ISHERWOOD FA, MAPSON LW
  Title
Biological synthesis of ascorbic acid: the conversion of derivatives of D-galacturonic acid into L-ascorbic acid by plant extracts.
  Journal
Biochem. J. 64 (1956) 13-22.
Reference
2  [PMID:12524550]
  Authors
Agius F, Gonzalez-Lamothe R, Caballero JL, Munoz-Blanco J, Botella MA, Valpuesta V
  Title
Engineering increased vitamin C levels in plants by overexpression of a D-galacturonic acid reductase.
  Journal
Nat. Biotechnol. 21 (2003) 177-81.
Reference
3  [PMID:16101307]
  Authors
Kuorelahti S, Kalkkinen N, Penttila M, Londesborough J, Richard P
  Title
Identification in the mold Hypocrea jecorina of the first fungal D-galacturonic acid reductase.
  Journal
Biochemistry. 44 (2005) 11234-40.
  Sequence
Reference
4  [PMID:18768163]
  Authors
Martens-Uzunova ES, Schaap PJ
  Title
An evolutionary conserved d-galacturonic acid metabolic pathway operates across filamentous fungi capable of pectin degradation.
  Journal
Fungal. Genet. Biol. 45 (2008) 1449-57.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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