KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.13.129Help
Entry
EC 1.14.13.129              Enzyme                                 

Name
beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase;
beta-carotene 3,3'-monooxygenase;
CrtZ
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With NADH or NADPH as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
beta-carotene,NADH:oxygen 3-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
beta-carotene + 2 NADH + 2 H+ + 2 O2 = zeaxanthin + 2 NAD+ + 2 H2O (overall reaction) [RN:R09747];
(1a) beta-carotene + NADH + H+ + O2 = beta-cryptoxanthin + NAD+ + H2O [RN:R07558];
(1b) beta-cryptoxanthin + NADH + H+ + O2 = zeaxanthin + NAD+ + H2O [RN:R07559]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
beta-carotene [CPD:C02094];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
beta-cryptoxanthin [CPD:C08591]
Product
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
beta-cryptoxanthin [CPD:C08591]
Comment
Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a beta-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate.
History
EC 1.14.13.129 created 2011
Pathway
Carotenoid biosynthesis
Orthology
K15746  
beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase
Genes
ATH: 
AT4G25700(BETA-OHASE_1) AT5G52570(BETA-OHASE_2)
ALY: 
CRB: 
EUS: 
BRP: 
BNA: 
THJ: 
CIT: 
CIC: 
TCC: 
GRA: 
EGR: 
GMX: 
PVU: 
VRA: 
MTR: 
CAM: 
ADU: 
AIP: 
LJA: 
Lj0g3v0299729.1(Lj0g3v0299729.1) Lj2g3v1902110.1(Lj2g3v1902110.1) Lj5g3v1988680.1(Lj5g3v1988680.1)
FVE: 
PPER: 
PMUM: 
MDM: 
PXB: 
CSV: 
CMO: 
RCU: 
JCU: 
POP: 
POPTR_0001s09770g(POPTRDRAFT_180252) POPTR_0004s07230g(POPTRDRAFT_1075961) POPTR_0017s01240g
VVI: 
SLY: 
544133(CrtR-b1) 544297(CrtR-b2)
SPEN: 
SOT: 
SIND: 
BVG: 
NNU: 
OSA: 
DOSA: 
Os03t0125100-01(Os03g0125100) Os04t0578400-01(Os04g0578400) Os10t0533500-00(Os10g0533500)
OBR: 
BDI: 
SBI: 
SORBI_01g048860(SORBIDRAFT_01g048860) SORBI_06g026190(SORBIDRAFT_06g026190)
ZMA: 
100273156 100276364 100281693(GRMZM2G382534) 103631225(GRMZM2G090051) 103631398(GRMZM5G826824) 732775(HYD1) 732825(HYD3)
SITA: 
PDA: 
EGU: 
MUS: 
ATR: 
SMO: 
PPP: 
CRE: 
VCN: 
OLU: 
OTA: 
BPG: 
MIS: 
MPP: 
CSL: 
CVR: 
APRO: 
TPS: 
EGE: 
ESA: 
CSZ: 
CSJ: 
CMJ: 
CMW: 
PAM: 
PANA_4163(crtZ)
PLF: 
PAJ: 
PAJ_p0121(crtZ)
PAQ: 
PVA: 
PAO: 
PANT: 
PANP: 
PAGG: 
LAX: 
PSTS: 
E05_04180(crtZ)
PPU: 
PPF: 
PPG: 
PPW: 
PPT: 
PPB: 
PPI: 
PPX: 
T1E_5632(crtZ)
PPUH: 
PPUT: 
PPUN: 
PP4_25760(crtZ)
PPUD: 
PFV: 
PMON: 
PMOT: 
PMOS: 
PPJ: 
POR: 
PEN: 
PSEEN3115(crtZ)
PSA: 
PST_3871(crtZ)
PSZ: 
PSR: 
PSC: 
PSH: 
PSTU: 
PSTT: 
PSV: 
PALK: 
PSW: 
PPV: 
PSEC: 
ACX: 
HAA: 
RTA: 
SCL: 
sce0583(crtZ)
SCU: 
CCRO: 
XAU: 
RVA: 
AUA: 
CAK: 
CHQ: 
BSB: 
BRD: 
NAR: 
NPP: 
NPN: 
SAL: 
SPHK: 
SPHP: 
SMAG: 
STER: 
STAX: 
SPHI: 
SSAN: 
SJP: 
SCH: 
SSY: 
SLG_38860(crtZ)
SYB: 
CIJ: 
SPHG: 
ELI: 
ERY: 
AAY: 
AMX: 
AEP: 
CNA: 
PBR: 
AFO: 
AYM: 
SFC: 
SLR: 
CPI: 
NKO: 
HHY: 
SGN: 
SGRA_1065(crtR)
PHE: 
PEP: 
PCM: 
PSN: 
SHT: 
MUP: 
CMR: 
CAMU: 
BBD: 
EVI: 
ALM: 
CHU: 
CHU_2038(crtZ)
DFE: 
SLI: 
SRD: 
RSI: 
FLI: 
EOL: 
FAE: 
HSW: 
HYM: 
HYD: 
HYE: 
HYG: 
PKO: 
RUF: 
RTI: 
RUD: 
MTT: 
FBT: 
GFO: 
GFO_2501(crtZ)
FJO: 
FPS: 
FP1451(crtZ)
FPC: 
FPY: 
FPO: 
FPQ: 
FPV: 
FPW: 
FPK: 
FBR: 
FCO: 
FIN: 
KQS_04640(crtZ)
RBI: 
ZPR: 
CAT: 
FBC: 
CAO: 
CLY: 
CLH: 
CBAL: 
CBAT: 
KDI: 
DOK: 
DDO: 
LAN: 
ZGA: 
MRS: 
MLT: 
ASL: 
PTQ: 
NDO: 
DDD_2395(crtZ)
NOM: 
POM: 
EAO: 
EMN: 
CHZ: 
CHSO_3057(crtZ)
WIN: 
SZE: 
AHZ: 
SYI: 
TDI: 
FBA: 
FTE: 
OHO: 
BBAU: 
PTO: 
SSO: 
SSO2906(crtZ)
SOL: 
SSOA: 
SSOL: 
SSOF: 
SAI: 
Saci_1733(crtZ)
SACN: 
SACR: 
SACS: 
SIA: 
SIM: 
SID: 
SIY: 
SIN: 
MSE: 
MCN: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:8798688]
  Authors
Sun Z, Gantt E, Cunningham FX Jr
  Title
Cloning and functional analysis of the beta-carotene hydroxylase of Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 271 (1996) 24349-52.
  Sequence
[ath:AT4G25700]
Reference
2  [PMID:9045623]
  Authors
Fraser PD, Miura Y, Misawa N
  Title
In vitro characterization of astaxanthin biosynthetic enzymes.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 272 (1997) 6128-35.
Reference
3  [PMID:9523693]
  Authors
Fraser PD, Shimada H, Misawa N
  Title
Enzymic confirmation of reactions involved in routes to astaxanthin formation, elucidated using a direct substrate in vitro assay.
  Journal
Eur. J. Biochem. 252 (1998) 229-36.
Reference
4  [PMID:9555077]
  Authors
Bouvier F, Keller Y, d'Harlingue A, Camara B
  Title
Xanthophyll biosynthesis: molecular and functional characterization of carotenoid hydroxylases from pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.).
  Journal
Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1391 (1998) 320-8.
  Sequence
Reference
5  [PMID:10524195]
  Authors
Linden H
  Title
Carotenoid hydroxylase from Haematococcus pluvialis: cDNA sequence, regulation and functional complementation.
  Journal
Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1446 (1999) 203-12.
  Sequence
Reference
6  [PMID:12591618]
  Authors
Zhu C, Yamamura S, Nishihara M, Koiwa H, Sandmann G
  Title
cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development.
  Journal
Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1625 (2003) 305-8.
  Sequence
Reference
7  [PMID:16614859]
  Authors
Choi SK, Matsuda S, Hoshino T, Peng X, Misawa N
  Title
Characterization of bacterial beta-carotene 3,3'-hydroxylases, CrtZ, and P450 in  astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway and adonirubin production by gene combination in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 72 (2006) 1238-46.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
133425-64-6

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