KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.99.10Help
Entry
EC 1.14.99.10               Enzyme                                 

Name
steroid 21-monooxygenase;
steroid 21-hydroxylase;
21-hydroxylase;
P450c21;
CYP21A2 (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
Miscellaneous
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
steroid,NADPH---hemoprotein reductase:oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating)
Reaction(IUBMB)
a C21 steroid + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = a 21-hydroxy-C21-steroid + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + H2O [RN:R02130]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
C21 steroid;
[reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
Product
21-hydroxy-C21-steroid;
[oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Comment
Requires NADPH and EC 1.6.2.4, NADPH---hemoprotein reductase. A heme-thiolate protein (P-450) enzyme responsible for the conversion of progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to their respective 21-hydroxylated derivatives, 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol. Involved in the biosynthesis of the hormones aldosterone and cortisol.
History
EC 1.14.99.10 created 1961 as EC 1.99.1.11, transferred 1965 to EC 1.14.1.8, transferred 1972 to EC 1.14.99.10, modified 2013
Pathway
Steroid hormone biosynthesis
Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00513  
steroid 21-monooxygenase
Genes
HSA: 
1589(CYP21A2)
PTR: 
471972(CYP21A2) 745345
GGO: 
PON: 
MCC: 
717020(CYP21A2)
MCF: 
MMU: 
13079(Cyp21a1)
RNO: 
24298(Cyp21a1)
CGE: 
HGL: 
TUP: 
CFA: 
415124(CYP21A2)
FCA: 
101094596(21-OHase)
PTG: 
BTA: 
281741(CYP21) 282425(CYP21A2)
BOM: 
CHX: 
SSC: 
403337(CYP21A2)
CFR: 
BACU: 
LVE: 
ECB: 
MYB: 
MYD: 
PALE: 
MDO: 
SHR: 
OAA: 
GGA: 
429828(CYP21A2)
MGP: 
FAB: 
PHI: 
APLA: 
ASN: 
AMJ: 
ACS: 
PBI: 
XLA: 
447267(cyp21a2.1)
XTR: 
DRE: 
TRU: 
MZE: 
OLA: 
101157155(cyp21a2)
XMA: 
LCM: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:14934270]
  Authors
DORFMAN RI, HAYANO M.
  Title
The action of adrenal homogenates on progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-desoxycortisone.
  Journal
Arch. Biochem. 36 (1952) 237-9.
Reference
2  [PMID:13031650]
  Authors
PLAGER JE, SAMUELS LT.
  Title
Synthesis of C14-17-hydroxy-11-desoxycorticosterone and 17-hydroxycorticosterone by fractionated extracts of adrenal homogenates.
  Journal
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 42 (1953) 477-8.
  Organism
Bos taurus
Reference
3  [PMID:13416221]
  Authors
RYAN KJ, ENGEL LL.
  Title
Hydroxylation of steroids at carbon 21.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 225 (1957) 103-14.
  Organism
Bos taurus
Reference
4  [PMID:6767716]
  Authors
Kominami S, Ochi H, Kobayashi Y, Takemori S
  Title
Studies on the steroid hydroxylation system in adrenal cortex microsomes. Purification and characterization of cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid C-21 hydroxylation.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 255 (1980) 3386-94.
  Organism
Bos taurus
Reference
5  [PMID:14568563]
  Authors
Martineau I, Belanger A, Tchernof A, Tremblay Y
  Title
Molecular cloning and expression of guinea pig cytochrome P450c21 cDNA (steroid 21-hydroxylase) isolated from the adrenals.
  Journal
J. Steroid. Biochem. Mol. Biol. 86 (2003) 123-32.
  Organism
Cavia porcellus
Reference
6  [PMID:16597434]
  Authors
Arase M, Waterman MR, Kagawa N
  Title
Purification and characterization of bovine steroid 21-hydroxylase (P450c21) efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 344 (2006) 400-5.
  Organism
Bos taurus
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
9029-68-9

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