KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.99.36Help
Entry
EC 1.14.99.36               Enzyme                                 

Name
beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase;
beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (misleading);
carotene dioxygenase (misleading);
carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (misleading);
BCMO1 (gene name);
BCDO (misleading)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
Miscellaneous
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
beta-carotene:oxygen 15,15'-oxidoreductase (15,15'-epoxidizing, bond-cleaving)
Reaction(IUBMB)
beta-carotene + O2 = 2 all-trans-retinal (overall reaction) [RN:R00032];
(1a) beta-carotene + O2 + AH2 = beta-carotene 15,15'-epoxide + H2O + A [RN:R10083];
(1b) beta-carotene 15,15'-epoxide + H2O = 15,15'-dihydroxy-beta-carotene [RN:R10084];
(1c) 15,15'-dihydroxy-beta-carotene + A = 2 all-trans-retinal + AH2 [RN:R10085]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
beta-carotene [CPD:C02094];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
AH2 [CPD:C00030];
beta-carotene 15,15'-epoxide;
H2O [CPD:C00001];
15,15'-dihydroxy-beta-carotene [CPD:C20332];
A [CPD:C00028]
Product
all-trans-retinal [CPD:C00376];
beta-carotene 15,15'-epoxide;
H2O [CPD:C00001];
A [CPD:C00028];
15,15'-dihydroxy-beta-carotene [CPD:C20332];
AH2 [CPD:C00030]
Comment
Requires bile salts and Fe(II). This animal enzyme catalyses the reaction in three stages, epoxidation of the 15,15'-double bond, hydration of the epoxide leading to ring opening, and oxidative cleavage of the diol formed. Thus only one atom of the dioxygen is incorporated into each retinal molecule. The nature of the acceptor listed in reactions (1a) and (1c) is assumed to be iron within the active site. Formerly classified in EC 1.13.11 as it had been thought to be a dioxygenase. cf. EC 1.13.11.63, beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase.
History
EC 1.14.99.36 created 1972 as EC 1.13.11.21, transferred 2001 to EC 1.14.99.36
Pathway
Retinol metabolism
Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00515  
beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase
Genes
HSA: 
53630(BCO1)
PTR: 
468043(BCMO1)
PPS: 
100987572(BCO1)
GGO: 
101132534(BCMO1)
PON: 
100454129(BCMO1)
NLE: 
100603806(BCMO1)
MCC: 
MCF: 
102121880(BCMO1)
CJC: 
100393264(BCO1)
MMU: 
63857(Bco1)
RNO: 
114106(Bco1)
CGE: 
100760350(Bcmo1)
NGI: 
103732128(Bco1)
HGL: 
101724039(Bcmo1)
OCU: 
100358087(BCMO1)
TUP: 
102484616(BCMO1)
CFA: 
489695(BCMO1)
AML: 
100483748(BCMO1)
UMR: 
103662084(BCO1)
FCA: 
101101606(BCMO1)
PTG: 
102959940(BCMO1)
BTA: 
534696(BCMO1)
BOM: 
102266127(BCMO1)
PHD: 
102315733(BCMO1)
CHX: 
102179507(BCMO1)
OAS: 
100294509(BCMO1) 101121875(BCMO1)
SSC: 
100192320(BCMO1)
CFR: 
102513983(BCMO1)
BACU: 
103015035(BCMO1)
LVE: 
103072015(BCMO1)
ECB: 
100069873(BCMO1)
MYB: 
102263079(BCMO1)
MYD: 
102771959(BCMO1)
PALE: 
102897588(BCMO1)
MDO: 
100031779(BCMO1)
SHR: 
100920512(BCMO1)
OAA: 
103171493(BCMO1)
GGA: 
395346(BCMO1)
MGP: 
APLA: 
101798614(BCMO1)
TGU: 
100228904(BCMO1)
FAB: 
101812113(BCMO1)
PHI: 
102103988(BCMO1)
FPG: 
101914506(BCMO1)
FCH: 
102058462(BCMO1)
CLV: 
102086476(BCMO1)
ASN: 
102378066(BCMO1)
AMJ: 
102573601(BCMO1)
PSS: 
102455966(BCMO1)
CMY: 
102929893(BCMO1)
ACS: 
100563614(bcmo1)
XTR: 
100486582(bcmo1)
DRE: 
393580(bco1l) 84039(bco1)
TRU: 
MZE: 
OLA: 
XMA: 
LCM: 
102362963(BCMO1)
CMK: 
103175958(bcmo1)
BFO: 
CIN: 
778841(bco)
SPU: 
ISC: 
LGI: 
HWA: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:5946623]
  Authors
Goodman DS, Huang HS, Shiratori T.
  Title
Mechanism of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from beta-carotene.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 241 (1966) 1929-32.
Reference
2
  Authors
Goodman, D.S., Huang, H.S., Kanai, M. and Shiratori, T.
  Title
The enzymatic conversion of all-trans beta-carotene into retinal.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 242 (1967) 3543-3554.
Reference
3
  Authors
Leuenberger, M.G., Engeloch-Jarret, C. and Woggon, W.D.
  Title
The reaction mechanism of the enzyme-catalysed central cleavage of beta-carotene to retinal.
  Journal
Angew. Chem. 40 (2001) 2614-2616.
Reference
4  [PMID:18979213]
  Authors
Kim YS, Oh DK
  Title
Substrate specificity of a recombinant chicken beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase that converts beta-carotene into retinal.
  Journal
Biotechnol. Lett. 31 (2009) 403-8.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
37256-60-3

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