KEGG   ENZYME: 1.3.8.2Help
Entry
EC 1.3.8.2                  Enzyme                                 

Name
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming);
dehydrosqualene desaturase (ambiguous);
CrtN (ambiguous);
4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (ambiguous);
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase;
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase (ambiguous)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-CH group of donors;
With a flavin as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene:FAD oxidoreductase (4,4'-diapolycopene-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene + 4 FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene + 4 FADH2 (overall reaction) [RN:R09690];
(1a) 15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene + FADH2 [RN:R09719];
(1b) all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene + FADH2 [RN:R09744];
(1c) all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene + FADH2 [RN:R09745];
(1d) all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene + FAD = all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene + FADH2 [RN:R09746]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
15-cis-4,4'-diapophytoene [CPD:C16144];
FAD [CPD:C00016];
all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene;
all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene;
all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene
Product
all-trans-4,4'-diapolycopene;
FADH2 [CPD:C01352];
all-trans-4,4'-diapophytofluene;
all-trans-4,4'-diapo-zeta-carotene;
all-trans-4,4'-diaponeurosporene
Comment
The enzyme catalyses four successive dehydrogenations, resulting in production of 4,4'-diapolycopene. While the enzyme from Staphylococcus aureus was only shown to produce 4,4'-diaponeurosporene in vivo [4], it is able to catalyse the last reaction in vitro [5].
History
EC 1.3.8.2 created 2011, modified 2011
Pathway
Carotenoid biosynthesis
Orthology
K10209  
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase
Genes
SAU: 
SA2348(crtN)
SAV: 
SAV2561(crtN)
SAW: 
SAHV_2545(crtN)
SAH: 
SAJ: 
SAM: 
MW2482(crtN)
SAS: 
SAR: 
SAR2642(crtN)
SAC: 
SACOL2576(crtN)
SAX: 
SAA: 
SAO: 
SAE: 
NWMN_2461(crtN)
SAD: 
SAAV_2627(crtN)
SUU: 
SUV: 
SUE: 
SUJ: 
SUK: 
SUC: 
SUT: 
SUQ: 
SUZ: 
MS7_2568(crtI)
SUD: 
SUX: 
SUW: 
SUG: 
SUF: 
SAUA: 
SAUE: 
SAUN: 
SAUS: 
SA40_2315(crtN)
SAUU: 
SAUG: 
SAUZ: 
SAUT: 
SAUJ: 
SAUK: 
SAUQ: 
SAUV: 
SAUW: 
SAUX: 
SAUY: 
SAB: 
SAB2434c(crtN)
SUY: 
SAUB: 
C248_2619(crtN)
SAUM: 
SAUC: 
SAUR: 
SAUI: 
SAUD: 
SAUF: 
X998_2544(crtI)
SHA: 
SH0491(crtN)
SHH: 
SLG: 
SLN: 
SWA: 
SPAS: 
SXY: 
SXL: 
SXO: 
SCAP: 
SEQO: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:8002598]
  Authors
Wieland B, Feil C, Gloria-Maercker E, Thumm G, Lechner M, Bravo JM, Poralla K, Gotz F
  Title
Genetic and biochemical analyses of the biosynthesis of the yellow carotenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J. Bacteriol. 176 (1994) 7719-26.
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
2  [PMID:10498735]
  Authors
Raisig A, Sandmann G
  Title
4,4'-diapophytoene desaturase: catalytic properties of an enzyme from the C(30) carotenoid pathway of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J. Bacteriol. 181 (1999) 6184-7.
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
3  [PMID:11566453]
  Authors
Raisig A, Sandmann G
  Title
Functional properties of diapophytoene and related desaturases of C(30) and C(40) carotenoid biosynthetic pathways.
  Journal
Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1533 (2001) 164-70.
  Sequence
[sae:NWMN_2461]
Reference
4  [PMID:15933032]
  Authors
Tao L, Schenzle A, Odom JM, Cheng Q
  Title
Novel carotenoid oxidase involved in biosynthesis of 4,4'-diapolycopene dialdehyde.
  Journal
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71 (2005) 3294-301.
Reference
5  [PMID:19618272]
  Authors
Yoshida K, Ueda S, Maeda I
  Title
Carotenoid production in Bacillus subtilis achieved by metabolic engineering.
  Journal
Biotechnol. Lett. 31 (2009) 1789-93.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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