KEGG   ENZYME: 2.1.1.157Help
Entry
EC 2.1.1.157                Enzyme                                 

Name
sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase;
ApDMT;
sarcosine-dimethylglycine methyltransferase;
SDMT;
sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase;
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:N,N-dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase
Class
Transferases;
Transferring one-carbon groups;
Methyltransferases
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:sarcosine(or N,N-dimethylglycine) N-methyltransferase [N,N-dimethylglycine(or betaine)-forming]
Reaction(IUBMB)
2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine = 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine (overall reaction) [RN:R10061];
(1a) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + sarcosine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + N,N-dimethylglycine [RN:R07243];
(1b) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + N,N-dimethylglycine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + betaine [RN:R07244]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
S-adenosyl-L-methionine [CPD:C00019];
sarcosine [CPD:C00213];
N,N-dimethylglycine [CPD:C01026]
Product
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine [CPD:C00021];
betaine [CPD:C00719];
N,N-dimethylglycine [CPD:C01026]
Comment
Cells of the oxygen-evolving halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanocthece halophytica synthesize betaine from glycine by a three-step methylation process. The first enzyme, EC 2.1.1.156, glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase, leads to the formation of either sarcosine or N,N-dimethylglycine, which is further methylated to yield betaine (N,N,N-trimethylglycine) by the action of this enzyme. Both of these enzymes can catalyse the formation of N,N-dimethylglycine from sarcosine [3]. The reactions are strongly inhibited by S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine.
History
EC 2.1.1.157 created 2005, modified 2010
Reference
1  [PMID:10896953]
  Authors
Nyyssola A, Kerovuo J, Kaukinen P, von Weymarn N, Reinikainen T.
  Title
Extreme halophiles synthesize betaine from glycine by methylation.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000) 22196-201.
  Organism
Actinopolyspora halophila, Ectothiorhodospira halochloris
  Sequence
[up:Q9KJ21]
Reference
2  [PMID:11319079]
  Authors
Nyyssola A, Reinikainen T, Leisola M.
  Title
Characterization of glycine sarcosine N-methyltransferase and sarcosine dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase.
  Journal
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67 (2001) 2044-50.
  Organism
Ectothiorhodospira halochloris
  Sequence
[up:Q9KJ21]
Reference
3  [PMID:12466265]
  Authors
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T.
  Title
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4932-42.
  Organism
Actinopolyspora halophila
  Sequence
[up:Q83WC3]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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