KEGG   ENZYME: 2.1.1.160Help
Entry
EC 2.1.1.160                Enzyme                                 

Name
caffeine synthase;
dimethylxanthine methyltransferase;
3N-methyltransferase;
DXMT;
CCS1;
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine 1-N-methyltransferase
Class
Transferases;
Transferring one-carbon groups;
Methyltransferases
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine N1-methyltransferase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [RN:R07920];
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 1,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [RN:R07921];
(3) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 7-methylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine [RN:R07919]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
S-adenosyl-L-methionine [CPD:C00019];
3,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C07480];
1,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C13747];
7-methylxanthine [CPD:C16353]
Product
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine [CPD:C00021];
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [CPD:C07481];
3,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C07480]
Comment
Paraxanthine is the best substrate for this enzyme but the paraxanthine pathway is considered to be a minor pathway for caffeine biosynthesis [2,3].
History
EC 2.1.1.160 created 2007
Pathway
Caffeine metabolism
Metabolic pathways
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K12731  
caffeine synthase
Reference
1  [PMID:10364410]
  Authors
Kato M, Mizuno K, Fujimura T, Iwama M, Irie M, Crozier A, Ashihara H.
  Title
Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves.
  Journal
Plant. Physiol. 120 (1999) 579-86.
  Organism
Camellia sinensis
  Sequence
[up:Q9FZN8]
Reference
2  [PMID:12527364]
  Authors
Mizuno K, Okuda A, Kato M, Yoneyama N, Tanaka H, Ashihara H, Fujimura T.
  Title
Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.).
  Journal
FEBS. Lett. 534 (2003) 75-81.
  Organism
Coffea arabica
  Sequence
[up:Q8H0D3]
Reference
3  [PMID:12746542]
  Authors
Uefuji H, Ogita S, Yamaguchi Y, Koizumi N, Sano H.
  Title
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three distinct N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in coffee plants.
  Journal
Plant. Physiol. 132 (2003) 372-80.
  Organism
Coffea arabica
  Sequence
[up:Q8H0D2]
Reference
4  [PMID:10984041]
  Authors
Kato M, Mizuno K, Crozier A, Fujimura T, Ashihara H.
  Title
Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves.
  Journal
Nature. 406 (2000) 956-7.
  Organism
Camellia sinensis
  Sequence
[up:Q9FZN8]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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