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Entry
EC 3.5.4.38                 Enzyme                                 

Name
single-stranded DNA cytosine deaminase;
AID;
activation-induced deaminase;
AICDA (gene name);
activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Class
Hydrolases;
Acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds;
In cyclic amidines
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
single-stranded DNA cytosine aminohydrolase
Reaction(IUBMB)
cytosine in single-stranded DNA + H2O = uracil in single-stranded DNA + NH3
Substrate
cytosine in single-stranded DNA;
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Product
uracil in single-stranded DNA;
NH3 [CPD:C00014]
Comment
The enzyme exclusively catalyses deamination of cytosine in single-stranded DNA. It preferentially deaminates five-nucleotide bubbles. The optimal target consists of a single-stranded NWRCN motif (W = A or T, R = A or G) [2]. The enzyme initiates antibody diversification processes by deaminating immunoglobulin sequences.
History
EC 3.5.4.38 created 2013
Orthology
K10989  
activation-induced cytidine deaminase
Genes
HSA: 
57379(AICDA)
PTR: 
473404(AICDA)
PPS: 
100973347(AICDA)
GGO: 
101135489(AICDA)
PON: 
100439396(AICDA)
NLE: 
100592218(AICDA)
MCC: 
716378(AICDA)
MCF: 
102122751(AICDA)
RRO: 
104672844(AICDA)
CJC: 
100387865(AICDA)
MMU: 
11628(Aicda)
RNO: 
399679(Aicda)
CGE: 
100689250(Aicda)
NGI: 
103727567(Aicda)
HGL: 
101723465(Aicda)
OCU: 
100008969(AICDA)
TUP: 
102476438(AICDA)
CFA: 
442983(AICDA)
AML: 
100474338(AICDA)
UMR: 
103669168(AICDA)
FCA: 
101101143(AICDA)
PTG: 
102950698(AICDA)
BTA: 
539888(AICDA)
BOM: 
102271255(AICDA)
PHD: 
102323202(AICDA)
CHX: 
102181572(AICDA)
OAS: 
101103056(AICDA)
SSC: 
100526050(AICDA)
CFR: 
102517000(AICDA)
BACU: 
103010462(AICDA)
LVE: 
103069988(AICDA)
ECB: 
100061137(AICDA)
MYB: 
102246875(AICDA)
MYD: 
102754251(AICDA)
PALE: 
102880164(AICDA)
MDO: 
100013907(AICDA)
SHR: 
100931157(AICDA)
OAA: 
100085951(AICDA)
GGA: 
418257(AICDA)
MGP: 
100542460(AICDA)
CJO: 
107318165(AICDA)
APLA: 
101792498(AICDA)
TGU: 
105758674(AICDA)
GFR: 
102039832(AICDA)
FAB: 
101816423(AICDA)
PHI: 
102100565(AICDA)
CCW: 
104690263(AICDA)
FPG: 
101914801(AICDA)
FCH: 
102056463(AICDA)
CLV: 
102087778(AICDA)
AAM: 
106495707(AICDA)
ASN: 
102376898(AICDA)
AMJ: 
102558786(AICDA)
PSS: 
102452729(AICDA)
CMY: 
102933542(AICDA)
ACS: 
100558459(aicda)
PBI: 
103050866(AICDA)
GJA: 
107116093(AICDA)
XLA: 
734224(aicda)
XTR: 
100497606(aicda)
DRE: 
493784(aicda)
TRU: 
777999(aicda)
MZE: 
101463826(aicda)
OLA: 
101168236(aicda)
XMA: 
102220777(aicda)
LCM: 
102350911(AICDA)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:12799424]
  Authors
Sohail A, Klapacz J, Samaranayake M, Ullah A, Bhagwat AS
  Title
Human activation-induced cytidine deaminase causes transcription-dependent, strand-biased C to U deaminations.
  Journal
Nucleic. Acids. Res. 31 (2003) 2990-4.
Reference
2  [PMID:17060445]
  Authors
Larijani M, Petrov AP, Kolenchenko O, Berru M, Krylov SN, Martin A
  Title
AID associates with single-stranded DNA with high affinity and a long complex half-life in a sequence-independent manner.
  Journal
Mol. Cell. Biol. 27 (2007) 20-30.
Reference
3  [PMID:17889624]
  Authors
Brar SS, Sacho EJ, Tessmer I, Croteau DL, Erie DA, Diaz M
  Title
Activation-induced deaminase, AID, is catalytically active as a monomer on single-stranded DNA.
  Journal
DNA. Repair. (Amst). 7 (2008) 77-87.
Reference
4  [PMID:17893327]
  Authors
Larijani M, Martin A
  Title
Single-stranded DNA structure and positional context of the target cytidine determine the enzymatic efficiency of AID.
  Journal
Mol. Cell. Biol. 27 (2007) 8038-48.
Reference
5  [PMID:19766322]
  Authors
Verma S, Goldammer T, Aitken R
  Title
Cloning and expression of activation induced cytidine deaminase from Bos taurus.
  Journal
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 134 (2010) 151-9.
  Sequence
[bta:539888]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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