KEGG   ENZYME: 4.1.1.101Help
Entry
EC 4.1.1.101                Enzyme                                 

Name
malolactic enzyme;
mleA (gene name);
mleS (gene name)
Class
Lyases;
Carbon-carbon lyases;
Carboxy-lyases
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
(S)-malate carboxy-lyase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(S)-malate = (S)-lactate + CO2 [RN:R11074]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(S)-malate [CPD:C00149]
Product
(S)-lactate [CPD:C00186];
CO2 [CPD:C00011]
Comment
The enzyme is involved in the malolactic fermentation of wine, which results in a natural decrease in acidity and favorable changes in wine flavors. It has been purified from several lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc mesenteroides [1], Lactobacillus plantarum [2], and Oenococcus oeni [3,4]. The enzyme contains a tightly bound NAD+ cofactor and requires Mn2+.
History
EC 4.1.1.101 created 2015
Pathway
ec00620  Pyruvate metabolism
ec01120  Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Orthology
K22212  malolactic enzyme
Genes
BGY: BGLY_0768
SAR: SAR0824
SUU: M013TW_0759
SUE: SAOV_0808
SUQ: HMPREF0772_12411
SUD: ST398NM01_0847
SUX: SAEMRSA15_06950
SUG: SAPIG0847
SUF: SARLGA251_07020(mleA)
SAUA: SAAG_01193
SAUS: SA40_0708(mleA)
SAUU: SA957_0723(mleA)
SAUG: SA268_0721(mleA)
SAB: SAB0723
SAUB: C248_0858
SAUC: CA347_788
SAMS: NI36_03905
SCAP: AYP1020_2097(maeA)
LLA: L121483(mleS)
LLK: LLKF_0928(mleS)
LLT: CVCAS_0863(mleS)
LLS: lilo_0851(mleS)
LLX: NCDO2118_0920(mleS)
LLM: llmg_1638(mleS)
LLI: uc509_0940(mleS)
LLW: kw2_0875
LLJ: LG36_1425(mleS)
LGR: LCGT_1018
LGV: LCGL_1022
LPK: LACPI_0666(mleS)
SMU: SMU_137(mleS)
SMJ: SMULJ23_0115(mleS)
SMUA: SMUFR_0114(sfcA)
SSA: SSA_0297(mleS)
SGO: SGO_0372
SGA: GALLO_2049(mleS)
SGG: SGGBAA2069_c20070(mleS)
SGT: SGGB_2032(mleS)
SOR: SOR_0297(mleS)
STK: STP_1531
STB: SGPB_0676(mleS.1) SGPB_1856(mleS.2)
SMN: SMA_1946(mleS)
SIF: Sinf_1751(mleS)
SIE: SCIM_1365(mleS)
SIB: SIR_0584(mleS)
SCG: SCI_1645(mleS)
SCON: SCRE_1601(mleS)
SCOS: SCR2_1601(mleS)
SLU: KE3_1857
LPL: lp_1118(mleS)
LPJ: JDM1_0922(mleS)
LPT: zj316_1153(mleS)
LPS: LPST_C0897(mleS)
LPZ: Lp16_0898
LAC: LBA1075
LAD: LA14_1089
LAF: SD55_1087
LSA: LCA_0441(mleS)
LSL: LSL_1313
LSI: HN6_01094
LSJ: LSJ_1303c
LBR: LVIS_2203
LCA: LSEI_0740
LPAP: LBPC_0667
LCB: LCABL_08060(mleS)
LCS: LCBD_0816(mae1)
LCE: LC2W_0816
LCW: BN194_08070(mleA)
LRE: Lreu_1532
LRF: LAR_1441
LRT: LRI_0433
LFF: LBFF_1737
LRH: LGG_00726(sfcA)
LRG: LRHM_0704
LRL: LC705_00719(sfcA)
LRA: LRHK_722
LBH: Lbuc_2270
LBN: LBUCD034_2368(mleS)
LSN: LSA_02100(mleA)
LAE: LBAT_0400
PPE: PEPE_1617
PPEN: T256_07955
PCE: PECL_1506(mleA)
EFC: EFAU004_02124(mleA)
EFAU: EFAU085_02153(mleA)
EFU: HMPREF0351_12120(sfcA)
EFM: M7W_884
EHR: EHR_08090
ECAS: ECBG_03055
EMU: EMQU_2067(sfcA)
EDU: LIU_11430
OOE: OEOE_1564
LME: LEUM_1005
LCI: LCK_00751(mleS)
LKI: LKI_10035
LGS: LEGAS_0941(mleS)
WKO: WKK_06580
AIN: Acin_1469(sfcA)
BDE: BDP_1119
BDN: BBDE_1071
BAST: BAST_0549
PDO: PSDT_0694
APV: Apar_1191
LBA: Lebu_1156
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:16345941]
  Authors
Lonvaud-Funel A, de Saad AM
  Title
Purification and Properties of a Malolactic Enzyme from a Strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Isolated from Grapes.
  Journal
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43 (1982) 357-61.
Reference
2  [PMID:6833282]
  Authors
Caspritz G, Radler F
  Title
Malolactic enzyme of Lactobacillus plantarum. Purification, properties, and distribution among bacteria.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 4907-10.
Reference
3  [PMID:2097345]
  Authors
Naouri P, Chagnaud P, Arnaud A, Galzy P
  Title
Purification and properties of a malolactic enzyme from Leuconostoc oenos ATCC 23278.
  Journal
J. Basic. Microbiol. 30 (1990) 577-85.
Reference
4  [PMID:23196745]
  Authors
Schumann C, Michlmayr H, Del Hierro AM, Kulbe KD, Jiranek V, Eder R, Nguyen TH
  Title
Malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization.
  Journal
Bioengineered. 4 (2013) 147-52.
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 4.1.1.101
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 4.1.1.101
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 4.1.1.101
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 4.1.1.101

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