KEGG   ENZYME: 4.1.1.101Help
Entry
EC 4.1.1.101                Enzyme                                 

Name
malolactic enzyme;
mleA (gene name);
mleS (gene name)
Class
Lyases;
Carbon-carbon lyases;
Carboxy-lyases
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
(S)-malate carboxy-lyase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(S)-malate = (S)-lactate + CO2 [RN:R11074]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(S)-malate [CPD:C00149]
Product
(S)-lactate [CPD:C00186];
CO2 [CPD:C00011]
Comment
The enzyme is involved in the malolactic fermentation of wine, which results in a natural decrease in acidity and favorable changes in wine flavors. It has been purified from several lactic acid bacteria, including Leuconostoc mesenteroides [1], Lactobacillus plantarum [2], and Oenococcus oeni [3,4]. The enzyme contains a tightly bound NAD+ cofactor and requires Mn2+.
History
EC 4.1.1.101 created 2015
Reference
1  [PMID:16345941]
  Authors
Lonvaud-Funel A, de Saad AM
  Title
Purification and Properties of a Malolactic Enzyme from a Strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Isolated from Grapes.
  Journal
Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 43 (1982) 357-61.
Reference
2  [PMID:6833282]
  Authors
Caspritz G, Radler F
  Title
Malolactic enzyme of Lactobacillus plantarum. Purification, properties, and distribution among bacteria.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 258 (1983) 4907-10.
Reference
3  [PMID:2097345]
  Authors
Naouri P, Chagnaud P, Arnaud A, Galzy P
  Title
Purification and properties of a malolactic enzyme from Leuconostoc oenos ATCC 23278.
  Journal
J. Basic. Microbiol. 30 (1990) 577-85.
Reference
4  [PMID:23196745]
  Authors
Schumann C, Michlmayr H, Del Hierro AM, Kulbe KD, Jiranek V, Eder R, Nguyen TH
  Title
Malolactic enzyme from Oenococcus oeni: heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and biochemical characterization.
  Journal
Bioengineered. 4 (2013) 147-52.
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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