KEGG   ENZYME: 4.2.3.107Help
Entry
EC 4.2.3.107                Enzyme                                 

Name
(+)-car-3-ene synthase;
3-carene cyclase;
3-carene synthase;
3CAR;
(+)-3-carene synthase
Class
Lyases;
Carbon-oxygen lyases;
Acting on phosphates
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, (+)-car-3-ene-forming]
Reaction(IUBMB)
geranyl diphosphate = (+)-car-3-ene + diphosphate [RN:R09963]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
geranyl diphosphate [CPD:C00341]
Product
(+)-car-3-ene [CPD:C11382];
diphosphate [CPD:C00013]
Comment
The enzyme reacts with (3S)-linalyl diphosphate twice as rapidly as geranyl diphosphate, but 25 times as rapidly as (3R)-linalyl diphosphate. It is assumed that (3S)-linalyl diphosphate is normally formed as an enzyme bound intermediate in the reaction. In the reaction the 5-pro-R hydrogen of geranyl diphosphate is eliminated during cyclopropane ring formation [1,2]. In Picea abies (Norway spruce) and Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) terpinolene is also formed [4,6]. See EC 4.2.3.113 terpinolene synthase. (+)-Car-3-ene is associated with resistance of Picea sitchensis (Sitka spruce) to white pine weevil [6].
History
EC 4.2.3.107 created 2012
Reference
1  [PMID:8373196]
  Authors
Savage TJ, Croteau R
  Title
Biosynthesis of monoterpenes: regio- and stereochemistry of (+)-3-carene biosynthesis.
  Journal
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 305 (1993) 581-7.
Reference
2  [PMID:7625832]
  Authors
Savage TJ, Ichii H, Hume SD, Little DB, Croteau R
  Title
Monoterpene synthases from gymnosperms and angiosperms: stereospecificity and inactivation by cysteinyl- and arginyl-directed modifying reagents.
  Journal
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 320 (1995) 257-65.
Reference
3  [PMID:8307957]
  Authors
Savage TJ, Hatch MW, Croteau R
  Title
Monoterpene synthases of Pinus contorta and related conifers. A new class of terpenoid cyclase.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 269 (1994) 4012-20.
Reference
4  [PMID:12602896]
  Authors
Faldt J, Martin D, Miller B, Rawat S, Bohlmann J
  Title
Traumatic resin defense in Norway spruce (Picea abies): methyl jasmonate-induced  terpene synthase gene expression, and cDNA cloning and functional characterization of (+)-3-carene synthase.
  Journal
Plant. Mol. Biol. 51 (2003) 119-33.
  Sequence
Reference
5  [PMID:19656416]
  Authors
Hamberger B, Hall D, Yuen M, Oddy C, Hamberger B, Keeling CI, Ritland C, Ritland K, Bohlmann J
  Title
Targeted isolation, sequence assembly and characterization of two white spruce (Picea glauca) BAC clones for terpenoid synthase and cytochrome P450 genes involved in conifer defence reveal insights into a conifer genome.
  Journal
BMC. Plant. Biol. 9 (2009) 106.
  Sequence
Reference
6  [PMID:21323772]
  Authors
Hall DE, Robert JA, Keeling CI, Domanski D, Quesada AL, Jancsik S, Kuzyk MA, Hamberger B, Borchers CH, Bohlmann J
  Title
An integrated genomic, proteomic and biochemical analysis of (+)-3-carene biosynthesis in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) genotypes that are resistant or susceptible to white pine weevil.
  Journal
Plant. J. 65 (2011) 936-48.
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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