KEGG   ENZYME: 4.2.3.20Help
Entry
EC 4.2.3.20                 Enzyme                                 

Name
(R)-limonene synthase;
(+)-limonene synthase;
geranyldiphosphate diphosphate lyase [(+)-(R)-limonene-forming];
geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, (+)-(4R)-limonene-forming]
Class
Lyases;
Carbon-oxygen lyases;
Acting on phosphates
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
geranyl-diphosphate diphosphate-lyase [cyclizing, (R)-limonene-forming]
Reaction(IUBMB)
geranyl diphosphate = (R)-limonene + diphosphate [RN:R06120]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
geranyl diphosphate [CPD:C00341]
Product
(R)-limonene;
diphosphate [CPD:C00013]
Comment
Forms the first step of carvone biosynthesis in caraway. The enzyme from Carum carvi (caraway) seeds requires a divalent metal ion (preferably Mn2+) for catalysis. This enzyme occurs in Citrus, Carum (caraway) and Anethum (dill); (-)-limonene, however, is made in the fir, Abies, and mint, Mentha, by EC 4.2.3.16, (4S)-limonene synthase.
History
EC 4.2.3.20 created 2003
Pathway
Monoterpenoid biosynthesis
Metabolic pathways
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K15096  
(R)-limonene synthase
Genes
CIT: 
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:9662532]
  Authors
Bouwmeester HJ, Gershenzon J, Konings MC, Croteau R.
  Title
Biosynthesis of the monoterpenes limonene and carvone in the fruit of caraway. I. Demonstration Of enzyme activities and their changes with development
  Journal
Plant. Physiol. 117 (1998) 901-12.
Reference
2  [PMID:12084056]
  Authors
Lucker J, El Tamer MK, Schwab W, Verstappen FW, van der Plas LH, Bouwmeester HJ, Verhoeven HA.
  Title
Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon). cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases.
  Journal
Eur. J. Biochem. 269 (2002) 3160-71.
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:11305598]
  Authors
Maruyama T, Ito M, Kiuchi F, Honda G.
  Title
Molecular cloning, functional expression and characterization of d-limonene synthase from Schizonepeta tenuifolia.
  Journal
Biol. Pharm. Bull. 24 (2001) 373-7.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
155807-65-1

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