KEGG   ENZYME: 5.1.2.1Help
Entry
EC 5.1.2.1                  Enzyme                                 

Name
lactate racemase;
lacticoracemase;
hydroxyacid racemase;
lactic acid racemase;
larA (gene name)
Class
Isomerases;
Racemases and epimerases;
Acting on hydroxy acids and derivatives
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
lactate racemase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(S)-lactate = (R)-lactate [RN:R01450]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(S)-lactate [CPD:C00186]
Product
(R)-lactate [CPD:C00256]
Comment
The enzyme has been characterized from the bacterium Lactobacillus plantarum and appears to be restricted to lactic acid bacteria. It contains a unique nickel-containing cofactor, pyridinium-3-thioamide-5-thiocarboxylate mononucleotide Ni pincer complex.
History
EC 5.1.2.1 created 1961
Pathway
Pyruvate metabolism
Orthology
K22373  
lactate racemase
Genes
TCI: 
DES: 
LPL: 
lp_0104(larA)
LPJ: 
LPT: 
LPS: 
LPR: 
LPZ: 
LPB: 
LSA: 
LBR: 
LBK: 
LFE: 
LFR: 
LFF: 
LPX: 
LPD: 
LBT: 
LCV: 
LPG: 
PPE: 
PPEN: 
PCE: 
EFI: 
CAC: 
CAE: 
CAY: 
CBO: 
CBA: 
CBH: 
CBY: 
CBL: 
CBB: 
CBI: 
CBF: 
CBM: 
CBJ: 
CBE: 
CBZ: 
CBEI: 
CLJ: 
CLS: 
CSR: 
CPAS: 
CPAT: 
CPAE: 
CSB: 
CAH: 
CBV: 
CSQ: 
CACE: 
CCK: 
CBUT: 
CTYK: 
CEU: 
CFM: 
AMT: 
RBP: 
CLO: 
CCT: 
CDF: 
PDC: 
CDC: 
CDL: 
PDF: 
PSOR: 
DDL: 
HMO: 
ELM: 
EHL: 
AWO: 
IBU: 
BPRS: 
TEP: 
TAE: 
TTM: 
TTO: 
AAR: 
APR: 
VPR: 
VAT: 
VRM: 
MED: 
SSG: 
SRI: 
OLO: 
CAER: 
SGP: 
AMO: 
CPOR: 
LOKI: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:14800428]
  Authors
HUENNEKENS FM, MAHLER HR, NORDMANN J.
  Title
Studies on the cyclophorase system. XVII. The occurrence and properties of an alpha-hydroxy acid racemose.
  Journal
Arch. Biochem. 30 (1951) 77-89.
Reference
2
  Authors
Kitahara, K., Obayashi, A. and Fukui, S.
  Title
Racemase I cell-free racemase.
  Journal
Enzymologia 15 (1953) 259-266.
Reference
3  [PMID:16166538]
  Authors
Goffin P, Deghorain M, Mainardi JL, Tytgat I, Champomier-Verges MC, Kleerebezem M, Hols P
  Title
Lactate racemization as a rescue pathway for supplying D-lactate to the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum.
  Journal
J. Bacteriol. 187 (2005) 6750-61.
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
4  [PMID:24710389]
  Authors
Desguin B, Goffin P, Viaene E, Kleerebezem M, Martin-Diaconescu V, Maroney MJ, Declercq JP, Soumillion P, Hols P
  Title
Lactate racemase is a nickel-dependent enzyme activated by a widespread maturation system.
  Journal
Nat. Commun. 5 (2014) 3615.
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
5  [PMID:26138974]
  Authors
Desguin B, Zhang T, Soumillion P, Hols P, Hu J, Hausinger RP
  Title
METALLOPROTEINS. A tethered niacin-derived pincer complex with a nickel-carbon bond in lactate racemase.
  Journal
Science. 349 (2015) 66-9.
  Sequence
[lpl:lp_0104]
Reference
6  [PMID:28374531]
  Authors
Yu MJ, Chen SL
  Title
From NAD+ to Nickel Pincer Complex: A Significant Cofactor Evolution Presented by Lactate Racemase.
  Journal
Chemistry. 23 (2017) 7545-7557.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
9024-05-9

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