KEGG   ENZYME: 6.3.2.35Help
Entry
EC 6.3.2.35                 Enzyme                                 

Name
D-alanine---D-serine ligase;
VanC;
VanE;
VanG
Class
Ligases;
Forming carbon-nitrogen bonds;
Acid-D-amino-acid ligases (peptide synthases)
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
D-alanine:D-serine ligase (ADP-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
D-alanine + D-serine + ATP = D-alanyl-D-serine + ADP + phosphate [RN:R09595]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
D-alanine [CPD:C00133];
D-serine [CPD:C00740];
ATP [CPD:C00002]
Product
D-alanyl-D-serine [CPD:C19719];
ADP [CPD:C00008];
phosphate [CPD:C00009]
Comment
The product of this enzyme, D-alanyl-D-serine, can be incorporated into the peptidoglycan pentapeptide instead of the usual D-alanyl-D-alanine dipeptide, which is formed by EC 6.3.2.4, D-alanine---D-alanine ligase. The resulting peptidoglycan does not bind the glycopeptide antibiotics vancomycin and teicoplanin, conferring resistance on the bacteria.
History
EC 6.3.2.35 created 2010
Reference
1  [PMID:1551598]
  Authors
Dutka-Malen S, Molinas C, Arthur M, Courvalin P
  Title
Sequence of the vanC gene of Enterococcus gallinarum BM4174 encoding a D-alanine:D-alanine ligase-related protein necessary for vancomycin resistance.
  Journal
Gene. 112 (1992) 53-8.
  Sequence
[up:P29753]
Reference
2  [PMID:9294159]
  Authors
Park IS, Lin CH, Walsh CT
  Title
Bacterial resistance to vancomycin: overproduction, purification, and characterization of VanC2 from Enterococcus casseliflavus as a D-Ala-D-Ser ligase.
  Journal
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94 (1997) 10040-4.
Reference
3  [PMID:10471558]
  Authors
Fines M, Perichon B, Reynolds P, Sahm DF, Courvalin P
  Title
VanE, a new type of acquired glycopeptide resistance in Enterococcus faecalis BM4405.
  Journal
Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 43 (1999) 2161-4.
Reference
4  [PMID:14617152]
  Authors
Depardieu F, Bonora MG, Reynolds PE, Courvalin P
  Title
The vanG glycopeptide resistance operon from Enterococcus faecalis revisited.
  Journal
Mol. Microbiol. 50 (2003) 931-48.
Reference
5  [PMID:19216682]
  Authors
Watanabe S, Kobayashi N, Quinones D, Hayakawa S, Nagashima S, Uehara N, Watanabe N
  Title
Genetic diversity of the low-level vancomycin resistance gene vanC-2/vanC-3 and identification of a novel vanC subtype (vanC-4) in Enterococcus casseliflavus.
  Journal
Microb. Drug. Resist. 15 (2009) 1-9.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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