KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04721Help
Entry
hsa04721                    Pathway                                

Name
Synaptic vesicle cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles (SVs). At the nerve terminal, SVs cycle through repetitive episodes of exocytosis and endocytosis. SVs are filled with neurotransmitters by active transport. The loaded SVs are then docked at a specialized region of the presynaptic plasma membrane known as the active zone, where they undergo a priming reaction. Upon arrival of an action potential, Ca2+ enters through voltage-gated channels and neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis, usually in less than a millisecond. After fusion, the vesicle is retrieved by endocytosis and reloaded for another round of exocytosis.
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Synaptic vesicle cycle
hsa04721

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00606  
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
H00700  
Centronuclear myopathy
H00749  
Episodic ataxias
H00775  
Familial or sporadic hemiplegic migraine
Drug
D00197  
Reserpine (JP16/USP/INN)
D06363  
Ziconotide (USAN/INN)
D08575  
Tetrabenazine (JAN/INN)
D08686  
Ziconotide acetate
D10012  
Incobotulinumtoxin A (USAN)
Other DBs
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
140679  
SLC32A1; solute carrier family 32 (GABA vesicular transporter), member 1 [KO:K15015]
6570  
SLC18A1; solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine transporter), member 1 [KO:K08155]
6571  
SLC18A2; solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine transporter), member 2 [KO:K08155]
6572  
SLC18A3; solute carrier family 18 (vesicular acetylcholine transporter), member 3 [KO:K14636]
57084  
SLC17A6; solute carrier family 17 (vesicular glutamate transporter), member 6 [KO:K12302]
246213  
SLC17A8; solute carrier family 17 (vesicular glutamate transporter), member 8 [KO:K12302]
57030  
SLC17A7; solute carrier family 17 (vesicular glutamate transporter), member 7 [KO:K12302]
6857  
SYT1; synaptotagmin I [KO:K15290]
6844  
VAMP2; vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 (synaptobrevin 2) [KO:K13504]
5864  
RAB3A; RAB3A, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07882]
22999  
RIMS1; regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis 1 [KO:K15291]
6804  
STX1A; syntaxin 1A (brain) [KO:K04560]
2054  
STX2; syntaxin 2 [KO:K08486]
6809  
STX3; syntaxin 3 [KO:K08486]
112755  
STX1B; syntaxin 1B [KO:K08486]
6812  
STXBP1; syntaxin binding protein 1 [KO:K15292]
23025  
UNC13A; unc-13 homolog A (C. elegans) [KO:K15293]
10497  
UNC13B; unc-13 homolog B (C. elegans) [KO:K15293]
440279  
UNC13C; unc-13 homolog C (C. elegans) [KO:K15293]
6616  
SNAP25; synaptosomal-associated protein, 25kDa [KO:K18211]
10815  
CPLX1; complexin 1 [KO:K15294]
10814  
CPLX2; complexin 2 [KO:K15294]
594855  
CPLX3; complexin 3 [KO:K15295]
339302  
CPLX4; complexin 4 [KO:K15295]
773  
CACNA1A; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit [KO:K04344]
774  
CACNA1B; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit [KO:K04849]
4905  
NSF; N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor [KO:K06027] [EC:3.6.4.6]
8775  
NAPA; N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein, alpha [KO:K15296]
1759  
DNM1; dynamin 1 [KO:K01528] [EC:3.6.5.5]
1785  
DNM2; dynamin 2 [KO:K01528] [EC:3.6.5.5]
26052  
DNM3; dynamin 3 [KO:K01528] [EC:3.6.5.5]
1211  
CLTA; clathrin, light chain A [KO:K04644]
1212  
CLTB; clathrin, light chain B [KO:K04645]
1213  
CLTC; clathrin, heavy chain (Hc) [KO:K04646]
8218  
CLTCL1; clathrin, heavy chain-like 1 [KO:K04646]
161  
AP2A2; adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 2 subunit [KO:K11824]
160  
AP2A1; adaptor-related protein complex 2, alpha 1 subunit [KO:K11824]
163  
AP2B1; adaptor-related protein complex 2, beta 1 subunit [KO:K11825]
1173  
AP2M1; adaptor-related protein complex 2, mu 1 subunit [KO:K11826]
1175  
AP2S1; adaptor-related protein complex 2, sigma 1 subunit [KO:K11827]
523  
ATP6V1A; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 70kDa, V1 subunit A [KO:K02145] [EC:3.6.3.14]
525  
ATP6V1B1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 56/58kDa, V1 subunit B1 [KO:K02147]
526  
ATP6V1B2; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 56/58kDa, V1 subunit B2 [KO:K02147]
245973  
ATP6V1C2; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 42kDa, V1 subunit C2 [KO:K02148]
528  
ATP6V1C1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 42kDa, V1 subunit C1 [KO:K02148]
51382  
ATP6V1D; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 34kDa, V1 subunit D [KO:K02149]
90423  
ATP6V1E2; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E2 [KO:K02150]
529  
ATP6V1E1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 31kDa, V1 subunit E1 [KO:K02150]
9296  
ATP6V1F; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 14kDa, V1 subunit F [KO:K02151]
9550  
ATP6V1G1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G1 [KO:K02152]
127124  
ATP6V1G3; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G3 [KO:K02152]
534  
ATP6V1G2; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 13kDa, V1 subunit G2 [KO:K02152]
8992  
ATP6V0E1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 9kDa, V0 subunit e1 [KO:K02153]
155066  
ATP6V0E2; ATPase, H+ transporting V0 subunit e2 [KO:K02153]
10312  
TCIRG1; T-cell, immune regulator 1, ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit A3 [KO:K02154]
23545  
ATP6V0A2; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a2 [KO:K02154]
50617  
ATP6V0A4; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a4 [KO:K02154]
535  
ATP6V0A1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal V0 subunit a1 [KO:K02154]
9114  
ATP6V0D1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d1 [KO:K02146]
245972  
ATP6V0D2; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38kDa, V0 subunit d2 [KO:K02146]
51606  
ATP6V1H; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 50/57kDa, V1 subunit H [KO:K02144]
527  
ATP6V0C; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 16kDa, V0 subunit c [KO:K02155]
533  
ATP6V0B; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 21kDa, V0 subunit b [KO:K03661]
Compound
C00002  
ATP
C00025  
L-Glutamate
C00037  
Glycine
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00080  
H+
C00334  
4-Aminobutanoate
C00388  
Histamine
C00547  
L-Noradrenaline
C00780  
Serotonin
C01996  
Acetylcholine
C03758  
Dopamine
C16041  
Leu-enkephalin
Reference
  Authors
Li L, Chin LS
  Title
The molecular machinery of synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 60:942-60 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
  Title
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Chapman ER
  Title
How does synaptotagmin trigger neurotransmitter release?
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 77:615-41 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Benfenati F, Onofri F, Giovedi S
  Title
Protein-protein interactions and protein modules in the control of neurotransmitter release.
  Journal
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:243-57 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
de Saint Basile G, Menasche G, Fischer A
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of biogenesis and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 10:568-79 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Carr CM, Munson M
  Title
Tag team action at the synapse.
  Journal
EMBO Rep 8:834-8 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Sudhof TC
  Title
The synaptic vesicle cycle.
  Journal
Annu Rev Neurosci 27:509-47 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Gundelfinger ED, Kessels MM, Qualmann B
  Title
Temporal and spatial coordination of exocytosis and endocytosis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:127-39 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Tang J, Maximov A, Shin OH, Dai H, Rizo J, Sudhof TC
  Title
A complexin/synaptotagmin 1 switch controls fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
  Journal
Cell 126:1175-87 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Chapman ER
  Title
Synaptotagmin: a Ca(2+) sensor that triggers exocytosis?
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:498-508 (2002)
Reference
PMID:7791897
  Authors
Sudhof TC
  Title
The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein-protein interactions.
  Journal
Nature 375:645-53 (1995)
Reference
  Authors
Rizo J, Sudhof TC
  Title
Snares and Munc18 in synaptic vesicle fusion.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 3:641-53 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Malsam J, Kreye S, Sollner TH
  Title
Membrane fusion: SNAREs and regulation.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2814-32 (2008)
KO pathway
 

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