KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04728Help
Entry
hsa04728                    Pathway                                

Name
Dopaminergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Dopamine (DA) is  an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning and memory, and endocrine regulation. Once released from presynaptic axonal terminals, DA interacts with at least five receptor subtypes in the central nervous system (CNS), which have been divided into two groups: the D1-like receptors (D1Rs), comprising D1 and D5 receptors, both positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production, and the D2-like receptors (D2Rs), comprising D2, D3, and D4 receptors, whose activation results in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and suppression of cAMP production. In addition, D1Rs and D2Rs modulate intracellular Ca2+ levels and a number of Ca2+ -dependent intracellular signaling processes. Through diverse cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent and - independent mechanisms, DA influences neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. Presynaptically localized D2Rs regulate synthesis and release of DA as the main autoreceptor of the dopaminergic system.
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Dopaminergic synapse
hsa04728

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00548  
Brunner syndrome
H00577  
Syndromic X-linked mental retardation with epilepsy or seizures
H00749  
Episodic ataxias
H00775  
Familial or sporadic hemiplegic migraine
H00783  
Febrile seizures
H00831  
Primary dystonia
H01161  
Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency
Drug
D00059  
Levodopa (JP16/USP/INN)
D00110  
Cocaine (USP)
D00152  
Phloroglucinol (JAN)
D00197  
Reserpine (JP16/USP/INN)
D00270  
Chlorpromazine (USP/INN)
D00283  
Clozapine (JAN/USP/INN)
D00303  
Disopyramide (JP16/USAN/INN)
D00367  
Mazindol (JAN/USP/INN)
D00373  
Thioridazine (USP/INN)
D00403  
Levomepromazine (USAN/INN)
D00405  
Methyldopa hydrate (JP16)
D00502  
Pergolide mesilate (JAN)
D00505  
Phenelzine sulfate (USP)
D00533  
Oxcarbazepine (USAN/INN)
D00538  
Zonisamide (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00558  
Carbidopa hydrate (JP16)
D00559  
Pramipexole hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D00560  
Pimozide (JP16/USP/INN)
D00561  
Sertindole (USAN/INN)
D00726  
Metoclopramide (JP16/INN)
D00777  
Amantadine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00780  
Bromocriptine mesilate (JP16)
D00781  
Entacapone (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00784  
Ropinirole hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D00785  
Selegiline hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D00786  
Tolcapone (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00789  
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00794  
Loxapine succinate (USP)
D00798  
Thioridazine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00799  
Trifluoperazine hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D00826  
Tranylcypromine sulfate (USP XXI)
D00987  
Cabergoline (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01097  
Lazabemide hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01163  
Ergometrine maleate (JP16)
D01176  
Blonanserin (JAN/INN)
D01259  
Flopropione (JP16/INN)
D01304  
Amezinium metilsulfate (JAN)
D01447  
Thioproperazine mesilate (JAN)
D01448  
Trifluoperazine maleate (JAN)
D01462  
Lisuride maleate (JAN)
D01477  
Opipramol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01505  
Talipexole hydrochloride (JAN)
D01522  
Tiapride hydrochloride (JP16)
D01548  
Mosapramine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01888  
Safrazine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01939  
Ziprasidone hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D02037  
Perphenazine maleate (JP16)
D02074  
Amphetamine sulfate (USP)
D02078  
Dextroamphetamine sulfate (USP)
D02100  
Ziprasidone mesylate (USAN)
D02182  
Cocaine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D02242  
Methamphetamine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D02340  
Loxapine (USAN/INN)
D02559  
Toloxatone (INN)
D02560  
Brofaromine (INN)
D02561  
Moclobemide (USAN/INN)
D02562  
Rasagiline mesylate (USAN)
D02563  
Befloxatone (INN)
D02564  
Pargyline hydrochloride (USAN)
D02571  
Sibutramine hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D02579  
Iproniazid (INN)
D02580  
Isocarboxazid (INN)
D02581  
Cimoxatone (INN)
D02625  
Trifluperidol (USAN/INN)
D02696  
Talampanel (INN)
D03110  
Bicifadine hydrochloride (USAN)
D03239  
Ladostigil tartrate (USAN)
D03248  
Clorgiline (INN)
D03274  
Chlorpromazine hibenzate (JAN)
D03409  
Caroxazone (USAN/INN)
D03556  
Zuclopenthixol (INN)
D03731  
Selegiline (USAN/INN)
D03740  
Dextroamphetamine (USAN)
D04034  
Chlorpromazine phenolphthalinate (JAN)
D04038  
Perphenazine fendizoate (JAN)
D04092  
Etryptamine acetate (USAN)
D04131  
Farampator (USAN/INN)
D04681  
Lazabemide (USAN/INN)
D04693  
Lergotrile (USAN/INN)
D04694  
Lergotrile mesylate (USAN)
D04747  
Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (USAN)
D04820  
Lurasidone hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D04965  
Perphenazine hydrochloride
D05033  
Milacemide hydrochloride (USAN)
D05039  
Minaprine (USAN/INN)
D05040  
Minaprine hydrochloride (USAN)
D05575  
Pramipexole (USAN/INN)
D05663  
Pyrovalerone hydrochloride (USAN)
D06363  
Ziconotide (USAN/INN)
D06566  
Bifeprunox (USAN/INN)
D06567  
Bifeprunox mesylate (USAN)
D06656  
Tezampanel (USAN)
D07101  
Bromopride (INN)
D07102  
Alizapride (INN)
D07305  
Piribedil (INN)
D07337  
Nialamide (INN)
D07338  
Iproclozide (INN)
D07445  
Amfetamine (INN)
D07563  
Alizapride hydrochloride
D08085  
Iproniazid phosphate
D08130  
Lisdexamfetamine (INN)
D08132  
Lisuride (INN)
D08148  
Loxapine hydrochloride
D08187  
Metamfetamine (INN)
D08205  
Methyldopa (INN)
D08207  
Methylergometrine (INN)
D08226  
Molindone (INN)
D08235  
Mosapramine (INN)
D08297  
Opipramol (INN)
D08339  
Pergolide (INN)
D08341  
Perphenazine decanoate
D08342  
Perphenazine enantate
D08349  
Phenelzine (BAN)
D08369  
Polyphloroglucinol phosphate
D08392  
Pirlindole (INN)
D08393  
Pirlindole hydrochloride
D08453  
Pargyline (INN)
D08469  
Rasagiline (USAN/INN)
D08489  
Ropinirole (USAN/INN)
D08513  
Sibutramine (INN)
D08558  
Talipexole (INN)
D08575  
Tetrabenazine (JAN/INN)
D08585  
Thioproperazine (INN)
D08625  
Tranylcypromine (INN)
D08636  
Trifluoperazine (INN)
D08637  
Trifluperidol hydrochloride
D08686  
Ziconotide acetate
D08687  
Ziprasidone (INN)
D08691  
Zuclopenthixol acetate
D08692  
Zuclopenthixol decanoate
D08693  
Zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride
D09215  
Eslicarbazepine (USAN/INN)
D09366  
Pardoprunox hydrochloride (USAN)
D09397  
Pardoprunox (USAN/INN)
D09612  
Eslicarbazepine acetate (USAN)
D09819  
Chlorpromazine tannate (JAN)
D09876  
Cariprazine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D09931  
Mibampator (USAN/INN)
D09953  
Pridopidine (USAN/INN)
D09954  
Pridopidine hydrochloride (USAN)
D09997  
Cariprazine (USAN/INN)
D10014  
Ioflupane I 123 (USAN)
D10088  
Amitifadine (USAN)
D10089  
Amitifadine hydrochloride (USAN)
D10158  
Safinamide (USAN/INN)
D10191  
Safinamide mesylate (USAN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
7054  
TH; tyrosine hydroxylase [KO:K00501] [EC:1.14.16.2]
1644  
DDC; dopa decarboxylase (aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase) [KO:K01593] [EC:4.1.1.28]
6570  
SLC18A1; solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine transporter), member 1 [KO:K08155]
6571  
SLC18A2; solute carrier family 18 (vesicular monoamine transporter), member 2 [KO:K08155]
1812  
DRD1; dopamine receptor D1 [KO:K04144]
1816  
DRD5; dopamine receptor D5 [KO:K05840]
50632  
CALY; calcyon neuron-specific vesicular protein [KO:K15493]
2776  
GNAQ; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide [KO:K04634]
23236  
PLCB1; phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5330  
PLCB2; phospholipase C, beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5331  
PLCB3; phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5332  
PLCB4; phospholipase C, beta 4 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
3708  
ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1 [KO:K04958]
3709  
ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2 [KO:K04959]
3710  
ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 [KO:K04960]
810  
CALML3; calmodulin-like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  
CALM2; calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
808  
CALM3; calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
801  
CALM1; calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
163688  
CALML6; calmodulin-like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  
CALML5; calmodulin-like 5 [KO:K02183]
815  
CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
817  
CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
816  
CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
818  
CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
5530  
PPP3CA; protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5532  
PPP3CB; protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5533  
PPP3CC; protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5578  
PRKCA; protein kinase C, alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5579  
PRKCB; protein kinase C, beta [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5582  
PRKCG; protein kinase C, gamma [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
2353  
FOS; FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K04379]
2778  
GNAS; GNAS complex locus [KO:K04632]
2774  
GNAL; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide, olfactory type [KO:K04633]
111  
ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
5566  
PRKACA; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  
PRKACB; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  
PRKACG; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5613  
PRKX; protein kinase, X-linked [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
1385  
CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
1386  
ATF2; activating transcription factor 2 [KO:K04450]
468  
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
10488  
CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
90993  
CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 [KO:K09048]
64764  
CREB3L2; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 2 [KO:K09048]
84699  
CREB3L3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 [KO:K09048]
148327  
CREB3L4; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 4 [KO:K09048]
9586  
CREB5; cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
1388  
ATF6B; activating transcription factor 6 beta [KO:K09049]
5600  
MAPK11; mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
6300  
MAPK12; mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5603  
MAPK13; mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
1432  
MAPK14; mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5599  
MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5602  
MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5601  
MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
84152  
PPP1R1B; protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1B [KO:K15494]
5499  
PPP1CA; protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5500  
PPP1CB; protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5501  
PPP1CC; protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
6323  
SCN1A; sodium channel, voltage-gated, type I, alpha subunit [KO:K04833]
775  
CACNA1C; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit [KO:K04850]
776  
CACNA1D; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit [KO:K04851]
773  
CACNA1A; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit [KO:K04344]
774  
CACNA1B; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit [KO:K04849]
3760  
KCNJ3; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 [KO:K04997]
3763  
KCNJ6; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 6 [KO:K05000]
3765  
KCNJ9; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 9 [KO:K05002]
3762  
KCNJ5; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 5 [KO:K04999]
1814  
DRD3; dopamine receptor D3 [KO:K04146]
1815  
DRD4; dopamine receptor D4 [KO:K04147]
2770  
GNAI1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1 [KO:K04630]
2773  
GNAI3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 [KO:K04630]
2771  
GNAI2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 [KO:K04630]
2775  
GNAO1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O [KO:K04534]
2782  
GNB1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1 [KO:K04536]
2783  
GNB2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2 [KO:K04537]
2784  
GNB3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3 [KO:K07825]
59345  
GNB4; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 [KO:K04538]
10681  
GNB5; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5 [KO:K04539]
54331  
GNG2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2 [KO:K07826]
2785  
GNG3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
2786  
GNG4; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4 [KO:K04541]
2787  
GNG5; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 [KO:K04542]
2788  
GNG7; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7 [KO:K04543]
94235  
GNG8; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 8 [KO:K04544]
2790  
GNG10; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 [KO:K04545]
2791  
GNG11; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 11 [KO:K04546]
55970  
GNG12; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 [KO:K04347]
648044  
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein); K04347 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 [KO:K04347]
51764  
GNG13; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
2792  
GNGT1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1 [KO:K04548]
2793  
GNGT2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2 [KO:K04549]
1813  
DRD2; dopamine receptor D2 [KO:K04145]
5515  
PPP2CA; protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5516  
PPP2CB; protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5519  
PPP2R1B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, beta [KO:K03456]
5518  
PPP2R1A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha [KO:K03456]
5520  
PPP2R2A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K04354]
5521  
PPP2R2B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K04354]
5522  
PPP2R2C; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma [KO:K04354]
55844  
PPP2R2D; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, delta [KO:K04354]
28227  
PPP2R3B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta [KO:K11583]
55012  
PPP2R3C; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', gamma [KO:K11583]
5523  
PPP2R3A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', alpha [KO:K11583]
5526  
PPP2R5B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', beta [KO:K11584]
5527  
PPP2R5C; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma [KO:K11584]
5528  
PPP2R5D; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', delta [KO:K11584]
5529  
PPP2R5E; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', epsilon isoform [KO:K11584]
5525  
PPP2R5A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', alpha [KO:K11584]
207  
AKT1; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  
AKT2; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  
AKT3; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
2931  
GSK3A; glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha [KO:K08822] [EC:2.7.11.26]
2932  
GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
2903  
GRIN2A; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A [KO:K05209]
2904  
GRIN2B; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2B [KO:K05210]
2890  
GRIA1; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 1 [KO:K05197]
2891  
GRIA2; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 2 [KO:K05198]
2892  
GRIA3; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 3 [KO:K05199]
2893  
GRIA4; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, AMPA 4 [KO:K05200]
3798  
KIF5A; kinesin family member 5A [KO:K10396]
3799  
KIF5B; kinesin family member 5B [KO:K10396]
3800  
KIF5C; kinesin family member 5C [KO:K10396]
9575  
CLOCK; clock circadian regulator [KO:K02223] [EC:2.3.1.48]
406  
ARNTL; aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like [KO:K02296]
6531  
SLC6A3; solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter), member 3 [KO:K05036]
4129  
MAOB; monoamine oxidase B [KO:K00274] [EC:1.4.3.4]
4128  
MAOA; monoamine oxidase A [KO:K00274] [EC:1.4.3.4]
1312  
COMT; catechol-O-methyltransferase [KO:K00545] [EC:2.1.1.6]
409  
ARRB2; arrestin, beta 2 [KO:K04439]
Compound
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00082  
L-Tyrosine
C00165  
Diacylglycerol
C00238  
Potassium cation
C00355  
3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
C00575  
3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01161  
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetate
C01245  
D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  
Sodium cation
C03758  
Dopamine
C05582  
Homovanillate
C05587  
3-Methoxytyramine
Reference
  Authors
Beaulieu JM, Gainetdinov RR
  Title
The physiology, signaling, and pharmacology of dopamine receptors.
  Journal
Pharmacol Rev 63:182-217 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Neve KA, Seamans JK, Trantham-Davidson H
  Title
Dopamine receptor signaling.
  Journal
J Recept Signal Transduct Res 24:165-205 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Surmeier DJ, Ding J, Day M, Wang Z, Shen W
  Title
D1 and D2 dopamine-receptor modulation of striatal glutamatergic signaling in striatal medium spiny neurons.
  Journal
Trends Neurosci 30:228-35 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Knab AM, Lightfoot JT
  Title
Does the difference between physically active and couch potato lie in the dopamine system?
  Journal
Int J Biol Sci 6:133-50 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Greengard P, Allen PB, Nairn AC
  Title
Beyond the dopamine receptor: the DARPP-32/protein phosphatase-1 cascade.
  Journal
Neuron 23:435-47 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Hu XT, Dong Y, Zhang XF, White FJ
  Title
Dopamine D2 receptor-activated Ca2+ signaling modulates voltage-sensitive sodium  currents in rat nucleus accumbens neurons.
  Journal
J Neurophysiol 93:1406-17 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Beaulieu JM, Gainetdinov RR, Caron MG
  Title
The Akt-GSK-3 signaling cascade in the actions of dopamine.
  Journal
Trends Pharmacol Sci 28:166-72 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
De Mei C, Ramos M, Iitaka C, Borrelli E
  Title
Getting specialized: presynaptic and postsynaptic dopamine D2 receptors.
  Journal
Curr Opin Pharmacol 9:53-8 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Seamans JK, Yang CR
  Title
The principal features and mechanisms of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex.
  Journal
Prog Neurobiol 74:1-58 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Yao WD, Spealman RD, Zhang J
  Title
Dopaminergic signaling in dendritic spines.
  Journal
Biochem Pharmacol 75:2055-69 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Li YC, Gao WJ
  Title
GSK-3beta activity and hyperdopamine-dependent behaviors.
  Journal
Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:645-54 (2011)
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