KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04742Help
Entry
hsa04742                    Pathway                                

Name
Taste transduction - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
All taste pathways are proposed to converge on common elements that mediate a rise in intracellular Ca2+ followed by neurotransmitter release. Na+ salt depolarizes taste cells by passive influx of Na+ through the amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel (ENaC). Acids depolarize taste cells by a variety of mechanisms, including influx of protons (H+) through ENaC and a proton-gated cation channel (MDEG). Two putative umami receptors have been identified: a truncated variant of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR4 and the heterodimer, T1R1 + T1R3. Umami receptors are coupled to a signaling pathway involving activation of PLCbeta2, production of IP3 and diacylglycerol, release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores and activation of a transient receptor potential channel, TRPM5. Bitter compounds, such as denatonium and PROP, activate particular T2R/TRB isoforms, which activate gustducin heterotrimers. Activated alpha-gustducin stimulates PDE to hydrolyze cAMP, whereas betagamma subunits activate PLCbeta2 to generate IP3, which leads to release of Ca2+ from internal stores. Artificial sweeteners activate GPCRs (T1R heterodimers) apparently linked via PLC to IP3 production and release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Sugars apparently activate GPCRs linked via AC to cAMP production which, in turn, may inhibit basolateral K+ channels through phosphorylation by cAMP-activated protein kinase A (PKA).
Class
Organismal Systems; Sensory system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Taste transduction
hsa04742

All organismsOrtholog table
Drug
D00025  
Sucrose (JP16/NF)
D00386  
Triamterene (JP16/USP/INN)
D01085  
Saccharin (JP16/NF)
D02192  
Saccharin sodium hydrate (JP16)
D02381  
Aspartame (NF/INN)
D05781  
Saccharin calcium (USP)
D08500  
Saccharin sodium
D08836  
Acesulfame potassium (NF)
D08862  
Aspartame acesulfame (NF)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
6337  
SCNN1A; sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1 alpha subunit [KO:K04824]
6338  
SCNN1B; sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1, beta subunit [KO:K04825]
6340  
SCNN1G; sodium channel, non-voltage-gated 1, gamma subunit [KO:K04827]
40  
ASIC2; acid-sensing (proton-gated) ion channel 2 [KO:K04828]
773  
CACNA1A; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit [KO:K04344]
774  
CACNA1B; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit [KO:K04849]
2914  
GRM4; glutamate receptor, metabotropic 4 [KO:K04607]
80835  
TAS1R1; taste receptor, type 1, member 1 [KO:K04624]
83756  
TAS1R3; taste receptor, type 1, member 3 [KO:K04626]
2782  
GNB1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1 [KO:K04536]
2784  
GNB3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3 [KO:K07825]
2785  
GNG3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
51764  
GNG13; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
259285  
TAS2R39; taste receptor, type 2, member 39 [KO:K08474]
259286  
TAS2R40; taste receptor, type 2, member 40 [KO:K08474]
259287  
TAS2R41; taste receptor, type 2, member 41 [KO:K08474]
259289  
TAS2R43; taste receptor, type 2, member 43 [KO:K08474]
259290  
TAS2R31; taste receptor, type 2, member 31 [KO:K08474]
259291  
TAS2R45; taste receptor, type 2, member 45 [KO:K08474]
259292  
TAS2R46; taste receptor, type 2, member 46 [KO:K08474]
259294  
TAS2R19; taste receptor, type 2, member 19 [KO:K08474]
259295  
TAS2R20; taste receptor, type 2, member 20 [KO:K08474]
259296  
TAS2R50; taste receptor, type 2, member 50 [KO:K08474]
338398  
TAS2R60; taste receptor, type 2, member 60 [KO:K08474]
353164  
TAS2R42; taste receptor, type 2, member 42 [KO:K08474]
50831  
TAS2R3; taste receptor, type 2, member 3 [KO:K08474]
50832  
TAS2R4; taste receptor, type 2, member 4 [KO:K08474]
50833  
TAS2R16; taste receptor, type 2, member 16 [KO:K08474]
50834  
TAS2R1; taste receptor, type 2, member 1 [KO:K08474]
50835  
TAS2R9; taste receptor, type 2, member 9 [KO:K08474]
50836  
TAS2R8; taste receptor, type 2, member 8 [KO:K08474]
50837  
TAS2R7; taste receptor, type 2, member 7 [KO:K08474]
50838  
TAS2R13; taste receptor, type 2, member 13 [KO:K08474]
50839  
TAS2R10; taste receptor, type 2, member 10 [KO:K08474]
50840  
TAS2R14; taste receptor, type 2, member 14 [KO:K08474]
54429  
TAS2R5; taste receptor, type 2, member 5 [KO:K08474]
5726  
TAS2R38; taste receptor, type 2, member 38 [KO:K08474]
259293  
TAS2R30; taste receptor, type 2, member 30 [KO:K08474]
3710  
ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 [KO:K04960]
29850  
TRPM5; transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily M, member 5 [KO:K04980]
80834  
TAS1R2; taste receptor, type 1, member 2 [KO:K04625]
2778  
GNAS; GNAS complex locus [KO:K04632]
196883  
ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
112  
ADCY6; adenylate cyclase 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
114  
ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 (brain) [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
5566  
PRKACA; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  
PRKACB; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  
PRKACG; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5613  
PRKX; protein kinase, X-linked [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
3745  
KCNB1; potassium voltage-gated channel, Shab-related subfamily, member 1 [KO:K04885]
346562  
GNAT3; guanine nucleotide binding protein, alpha transducing 3 [KO:K04631]
5136  
PDE1A; phosphodiesterase 1A, calmodulin-dependent [KO:K13755] [EC:3.1.4.17]
5330  
PLCB2; phospholipase C, beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
Compound
C00025  
L-Glutamate
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00080  
H+
C00089  
Sucrose
C00130  
IMP
C00144  
GMP
C00238  
Potassium cation
C00575  
3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00942  
3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01245  
D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  
Sodium cation
C07569  
Propylthiouracil
C12284  
Saccharin sodium anhydrous
Reference
  Authors
Zhang Y, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Mueller KL, Cook B, Wu D, Zuker CS, Ryba NJ.
  Title
Coding of sweet, bitter, and umami tastes: different receptor cells sharing similar signaling pathways.
  Journal
Cell 112:293-301 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Bigiani A, Ghiaroni V, Fieni F.
  Title
Channels as taste receptors in vertebrates.
  Journal
Prog Biophys Mol Biol 83:193-225 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Kinnamon SC, Lin W, Ogura T, Ruiz C, Delay E.
  Title
Downstream signaling effectors for umami taste.
  Journal
Chem Senses 30 Suppl 1:i31-i32 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Meyerhof W.
  Title
Elucidation of mammalian bitter taste.
  Journal
Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 154:37-72 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Margolskee RF.
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of bitter and sweet taste transduction.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 277:1-4 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Gilbertson TA, Damak S, Margolskee RF.
  Title
The molecular physiology of taste transduction.
  Journal
Curr Opin Neurobiol 10:519-27 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
DeSimone JA, Lyall V, Heck GL, Feldman GM.
  Title
Acid detection by taste receptor cells.
  Journal
Respir Physiol 129:231-45 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Lin W, Ogura T, Kinnamon SC.
  Title
Acid-activated cation currents in rat vallate taste receptor cells.
  Journal
J Neurophysiol 88:133-41 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Feldman GM, Mogyorosi A, Heck GL, DeSimone JA, Santos CR, Clary RA, Lyall V.
  Title
Salt-evoked lingual surface potential in humans.
  Journal
J Neurophysiol 90:2060-4 (2003)
Reference
PMID:8794107
  Authors
Kinnamon SC, Margolskee RF.
  Title
Mechanisms of taste transduction.
  Journal
Curr Opin Neurobiol 6:506-13 (1996)
Reference
  Authors
Perez CA, Huang L, Rong M, Kozak JA, Preuss AK, Zhang H, Max M, Margolskee RF.
  Title
A transient receptor potential channel expressed in taste receptor cells.
  Journal
Nat Neurosci 5:1169-76 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Kim MR, Kusakabe Y, Miura H, Shindo Y, Ninomiya Y, Hino A.
  Title
Regional expression patterns of taste receptors and gustducin in the mouse tongue.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 312:500-6 (2003)
Reference
PMID:9146906
  Authors
Uchida Y, Sato T.
  Title
Changes in outward K+ currents in response to two types of sweeteners in sweet taste transduction of gerbil taste cells.
  Journal
Chem Senses 22:163-9 (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Wettschureck N, Offermanns S.
  Title
Mammalian G proteins and their cell type specific functions.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 85:1159-204 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Scott K.
  Title
Taste recognition: food for thought.
  Journal
Neuron 48:455-64 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Damak S, Rong M, Yasumatsu K, Kokrashvili Z, Perez CA, Shigemura N, Yoshida R, Mosinger B Jr, Glendinning JI, Ninomiya Y, Margolskee RF.
  Title
Trpm5 null mice respond to bitter, sweet, and umami compounds.
  Journal
Chem Senses 31:253-64 (2006)
KO pathway
 

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