KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04977Help
Entry
hsa04977                    Pathway                                

Name
Vitamin digestion and absorption - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Vitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactions. Because humans and other mammals cannot synthesize these compounds (except for some synthesis of niacin), they must obtain them from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. Vitamins  are classified based on their solubility in water or fat. Most of the water-soluble vitamins are transported across the small intestinal membrane by carrier-mediated mechanisms, but vitamin B12, cobalamin, is transported by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins requires all of the processes needed for fat absorption. After digestion, these vitamins and the products of pancreatic hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) are emulsified by bile salts to form mixed micelles which are taken up by intestinal enterocytes and incorporated into chylomicrons (CM). CM are then secreted into the lymphatic system, and finally moves into the plasma.
Class
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa04977  Vitamin digestion and absorption
hsa04977

Ortholog table
Disease
H00845  Familial amyloidosis
H00930  Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
H01182  Biotinidase deficiency
H01190  Transcobalamin II deficiency
H01231  Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD)
H01252  Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM)
H01270  Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL)
H01277  Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia
H01565  Wernicke encephalopathy
H01903  Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome
Other DBs
BSID: 199556
GO: 0051180
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
2346  FOLH1; folate hydrolase 1 [KO:K14592] [EC:3.4.17.21]
686  BTD; biotinidase [KO:K01435] [EC:3.5.1.12]
2694  GIF; gastric intrinsic factor [KO:K14615]
8029  CUBN; cubilin [KO:K14616]
55788  LMBRD1; LMBR1 domain containing 1 [KO:K14617]
25974  MMACHC; methylmalonic aciduria (cobalamin deficiency) cblC type, with homocystinuria [KO:K14618]
4363  ABCC1; ATP binding cassette subfamily C member 1 [KO:K05665]
6948  TCN2; transcobalamin 2 [KO:K14619]
80704  SLC19A3; solute carrier family 19 member 3 [KO:K14610]
10560  SLC19A2; solute carrier family 19 member 2 [KO:K14610]
113278  SLC52A3; solute carrier family 52 member 3 [KO:K14620]
8884  SLC5A6; solute carrier family 5 member 6 [KO:K14386]
6573  SLC19A1; solute carrier family 19 member 1 [KO:K14609]
949  SCARB1; scavenger receptor class B member 1 [KO:K13885]
5406  PNLIP; pancreatic lipase [KO:K14073] [EC:3.1.1.3]
151056  PLB1; phospholipase B1 [KO:K14621] [EC:3.1.1.5 3.1.1.4]
5948  RBP2; retinol binding protein 2 [KO:K14622]
158835  AWAT2; acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2 [KO:K11156] [EC:2.3.1.76 2.3.1.75]
9227  LRAT; lecithin retinol acyltransferase [KO:K00678] [EC:2.3.1.135]
337  APOA4; apolipoprotein A4 [KO:K08760]
338  APOB; apolipoprotein B [KO:K14462]
335  APOA1; apolipoprotein A1 [KO:K08757]
113235  SLC46A1; solute carrier family 46 member 1 [KO:K14613]
9963  SLC23A1; solute carrier family 23 member 1 [KO:K14611]
Compound
C00003  NAD+
C00010  CoA
C00016  FAD
C00018  Pyridoxal phosphate
C00061  FMN
C00068  Thiamin diphosphate
C00072  Ascorbate
C00080  H+
C00120  Biotin
C00153  Nicotinamide
C00162  Fatty acid
C00187  Cholesterol
C00250  Pyridoxal
C00255  Riboflavin
C00376  Retinal
C00378  Thiamine
C00422  Triacylglycerol
C00473  Retinol
C00504  Folate
C00534  Pyridoxamine
C00647  Pyridoxamine phosphate
C00681  1-Acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
C00828  Menaquinone
C00864  Pantothenate
C01330  Sodium cation
C01558  Bile salt
C01885  1-Acylglycerol
C02059  Phylloquinone
C02075  Retinyl ester
C02094  beta-Carotene
C02112  2-Acylglycerol
C02477  alpha-Tocopherol
C02530  Cholesterol ester
C05377  Menadione
C05443  Vitamin D3
C05552  Biocytin
C05776  Vitamin B12
C12981  dl-alpha-Tocopherol nicotinate
C13202  alpha-Tocopherol acetate
Reference
  Authors
Said HM, Mohammed ZM
  Title
Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins: an update.
  Journal
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 22:140-6 (2006)
DOI:10.1097/01.mog.0000203870.22706.52
Reference
  Authors
Basu TK, Donaldson D
  Title
Intestinal absorption in health and disease: micronutrients.
  Journal
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17:957-79 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S1521-6918(03)00084-2
Reference
  Authors
Said HM
  Title
Recent advances in carrier-mediated intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 66:419-46 (2004)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.physiol.66.032102.144611
Reference
  Authors
Reidling JC, Nabokina SM, Balamurugan K, Said HM
  Title
Developmental maturation of intestinal and renal thiamin uptake: studies in wild-type and transgenic mice carrying human THTR-1 and 2 promoters.
  Journal
J Cell Physiol 206:371-7 (2006)
DOI:10.1002/jcp.20492
Reference
  Authors
Fujimura M, Yamamoto S, Murata T, Yasujima T, Inoue K, Ohta KY, Yuasa H
  Title
Functional characteristics of the human ortholog of riboflavin transporter 2 and riboflavin-responsive expression of its rat ortholog in the small intestine indicate its involvement in riboflavin absorption.
  Journal
J Nutr 140:1722-7 (2010)
DOI:10.3945/jn.110.128330
Reference
  Authors
Said HM
  Title
Cell and molecular aspects of human intestinal biotin absorption.
  Journal
J Nutr 139:158-62 (2009)
DOI:10.3945/jn.108.092023
Reference
  Authors
Green R
  Title
Ins and outs of cellular cobalamin transport.
  Journal
Blood 115:1476-7 (2010)
DOI:10.1182/blood-2009-12-254037
Reference
  Authors
Zhao R, Matherly LH, Goldman ID
  Title
Membrane transporters and folate homeostasis: intestinal absorption and transport into systemic compartments and tissues.
  Journal
Expert Rev Mol Med 11:e4 (2009)
DOI:10.1017/S1462399409000969
Reference
  Authors
Hediger MA
  Title
New view at C.
  Journal
Nat Med 8:445-6 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nm0502-445
Reference
  Authors
Harrison EH, Hussain MM
  Title
Mechanisms involved in the intestinal digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A.
  Journal
J Nutr 131:1405-8 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Blomhoff R, Blomhoff HK.
  Title
Overview of retinoid metabolism and function.
  Journal
J Neurobiol 66:606-30 (2006)
DOI:10.1002/neu.20242
Reference
  Authors
Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L
  Title
Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat?
  Journal
Mol Nutr Food Res 54:631-40 (2010)
DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200900445
Reference
  Authors
Shearer MJ, Newman P
  Title
Metabolism and cell biology of vitamin K.
  Journal
Thromb Haemost 100:530-47 (2008)
DOI:10.1160/TH08-03-0147
KO pathway
ko04977   

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