KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05161Help
Entry
hsa05161                    Pathway                                

Name
Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and converted into a covalently closed circular molecule cccDNA. The cccDNA is the template for transcription of all viral RNAs including the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), encoding for 7 viral proteins: large, middle, and small envelope proteins (LHBs, MHBs, and SHBs) that form the surface antigen (HBsAg), the core antigen (HBcAg), the e antigen (HBeAg), the HBV polymerase, and the regulatory protein X (HBx). The pgRNA interacts with the viral polymerase protein to initiate the encapsidation into the core particles. Through endoplasmic reticulum, the core particles finish assembling with the envelope proteins and are released. HBV infection leads to a wide spectrum of liver diseases raging from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of liver injury is still not clear. However, HBV proteins target host proteins, involved in a variety of functions, thus regulating transcription, cellular signaling cascades, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Hepatitis B
hsa05161

All organismsOrtholog table
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
3339  
HSPG2; heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 [KO:K06255]
5599  
MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5602  
MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5601  
MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
7040  
TGFB1; transforming growth factor, beta 1 [KO:K13375]
7042  
TGFB2; transforming growth factor, beta 2 [KO:K13376]
7043  
TGFB3; transforming growth factor, beta 3 [KO:K13377]
7046  
TGFBR1; transforming growth factor, beta receptor 1 [KO:K04674] [EC:2.7.11.30]
1026  
CDKN1A; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) [KO:K06625]
4609  
MYC; v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog [KO:K04377]
1959  
EGR2; early growth response 2 [KO:K12496]
1960  
EGR3; early growth response 3 [KO:K12497]
1387  
CREBBP; CREB binding protein [KO:K04498] [EC:2.3.1.48]
2033  
EP300; E1A binding protein p300 [KO:K04498] [EC:2.3.1.48]
356  
FASLG; Fas ligand (TNF superfamily, member 6) [KO:K04389]
355  
FAS; Fas cell surface death receptor [KO:K04390]
8772  
FADD; Fas (TNFRSF6)-associated via death domain [KO:K02373]
841  
CASP8; caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04398] [EC:3.4.22.61]
843  
CASP10; caspase 10, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04400] [EC:3.4.22.63]
1642  
DDB1; damage-specific DNA binding protein 1, 127kDa [KO:K10610]
1643  
DDB2; damage-specific DNA binding protein 2, 48kDa [KO:K10140]
4214  
MAP3K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1, E3 ubiquitin protein ligase [KO:K04416] [EC:2.7.11.25]
7534  
YWHAZ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta [KO:K16197]
7529  
YWHAB; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, beta [KO:K16197]
10971  
YWHAQ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, theta [KO:K16197]
6416  
MAP2K4; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 [KO:K04430] [EC:2.7.12.2]
4792  
NFKBIA; nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha [KO:K04734]
4790  
NFKB1; nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  
RELA; v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A [KO:K04735]
4318  
MMP9; matrix metallopeptidase 9 (gelatinase B, 92kDa gelatinase, 92kDa type IV collagenase) [KO:K01403] [EC:3.4.24.35]
596  
BCL2; B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 [KO:K02161]
5290  
PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  
PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  
PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5294  
PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  
PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) [KO:K02649]
23533  
PIK3R5; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5 [KO:K02649]
5296  
PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (beta) [KO:K02649]
8503  
PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma) [KO:K02649]
207  
AKT1; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  
AKT2; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  
AKT3; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
1147  
CHUK; conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase [KO:K04467] [EC:2.7.11.10]
3551  
IKBKB; inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta [KO:K07209] [EC:2.7.11.10]
8517  
IKBKG; inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma [KO:K07210]
572  
BAD; BCL2-associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
7157  
TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
5728  
PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog [KO:K01110] [EC:3.1.3.67 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
CASP12; caspase 12 (gene/pseudogene) [KO:K04741] [EC:3.4.22.-]
317  
APAF1; apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 [KO:K02084]
10542  
LAMTOR5; late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and MTOR activator 5 [KO:K16344]
332  
BIRC5; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 [KO:K08731]
581  
BAX; BCL2-associated X protein [KO:K02159]
54205  
CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
842  
CASP9; caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04399] [EC:3.4.22.62]
836  
CASP3; caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K02187] [EC:3.4.22.56]
7419  
VDAC3; voltage-dependent anion channel 3 [KO:K15041]
4772  
NFATC1; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 [KO:K04446]
4773  
NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 2 [KO:K17332]
4775  
NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 3 [KO:K17333]
4776  
NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 4 [KO:K17334]
7124  
TNF; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
2185  
PTK2B; protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta [KO:K05871] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6714  
SRC; v-src avian sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog [KO:K05704] [EC:2.7.10.2]
2885  
GRB2; growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
3265  
HRAS; Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K02833]
3845  
KRAS; Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07827]
4893  
NRAS; neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
3725  
JUN; jun proto-oncogene [KO:K04448]
4089  
SMAD4; SMAD family member 4 [KO:K04501]
1386  
ATF2; activating transcription factor 2 [KO:K04450]
3576  
CXCL8; chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 [KO:K10030]
5111  
PCNA; proliferating cell nuclear antigen [KO:K04802]
3716  
JAK1; Janus kinase 1 [KO:K11217] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6772  
STAT1; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1, 91kDa [KO:K11220]
6773  
STAT2; signal transducer and activator of transcription 2, 113kDa [KO:K11221]
6774  
STAT3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (acute-phase response factor) [KO:K04692]
6775  
STAT4; signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 [KO:K11222]
6776  
STAT5A; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A [KO:K11223]
6777  
STAT5B; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [KO:K11224]
6778  
STAT6; signal transducer and activator of transcription 6, interleukin-4 induced [KO:K11225]
537  
ATP6AP1; ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal accessory protein 1 [KO:K03662]
5578  
PRKCA; protein kinase C, alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5579  
PRKCB; protein kinase C, beta [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5582  
PRKCG; protein kinase C, gamma [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5894  
RAF1; v-raf-1 murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  
MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5605  
MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  
MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  
MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
1385  
CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
10488  
CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
90993  
CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 [KO:K09048]
64764  
CREB3L2; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 2 [KO:K09048]
84699  
CREB3L3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 [KO:K09048]
148327  
CREB3L4; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 4 [KO:K09048]
468  
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
9586  
CREB5; cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
1388  
ATF6B; activating transcription factor 6 beta [KO:K09049]
2353  
FOS; FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K04379]
2002  
ELK1; ELK1, member of ETS oncogene family [KO:K04375]
1654  
DDX3X; DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box helicase 3, X-linked [KO:K11594] [EC:3.6.4.13]
3439  
IFNA1; interferon, alpha 1 [KO:K05414]
3440  
IFNA2; interferon, alpha 2 [KO:K05414]
3441  
IFNA4; interferon, alpha 4 [KO:K05414]
3442  
IFNA5; interferon, alpha 5 [KO:K05414]
3443  
IFNA6; interferon, alpha 6 [KO:K05414]
3444  
IFNA7; interferon, alpha 7 [KO:K05414]
3445  
IFNA8; interferon, alpha 8 [KO:K05414]
3446  
IFNA10; interferon, alpha 10 [KO:K05414]
3447  
IFNA13; interferon, alpha 13 [KO:K05414]
3448  
IFNA14; interferon, alpha 14 [KO:K05414]
3449  
IFNA16; interferon, alpha 16 [KO:K05414]
3451  
IFNA17; interferon, alpha 17 [KO:K05414]
3452  
IFNA21; interferon, alpha 21 [KO:K05414]
3454  
IFNAR1; interferon (alpha, beta and omega) receptor 1 [KO:K05130]
7098  
TLR3; toll-like receptor 3 [KO:K05401]
148022  
TICAM1; toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 1 [KO:K05842]
23586  
DDX58; DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) box polypeptide 58 [KO:K12646] [EC:3.6.3.14]
64135  
IFIH1; interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 [KO:K12647] [EC:3.6.4.13]
57506  
MAVS; mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein [KO:K12648]
9641  
IKBKE; inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase epsilon [KO:K07211] [EC:2.7.11.10]
29110  
TBK1; TANK-binding kinase 1 [KO:K05410] [EC:2.7.11.10]
3661  
IRF3; interferon regulatory factor 3 [KO:K05411]
3665  
IRF7; interferon regulatory factor 7 [KO:K09447]
7099  
TLR4; toll-like receptor 4 [KO:K10160]
353376  
TICAM2; toll-like receptor adaptor molecule 2 [KO:K05409]
3456  
IFNB1; interferon, beta 1, fibroblast [KO:K05415]
7097  
TLR2; toll-like receptor 2 [KO:K10159]
114609  
TIRAP; toll-interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain containing adaptor protein [KO:K05403]
4615  
MYD88; myeloid differentiation primary response 88 [KO:K04729]
3569  
IL6; interleukin 6 [KO:K05405]
595  
CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
1019  
CDK4; cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:2.7.11.22]
1021  
CDK6; cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:2.7.11.22]
5925  
RB1; retinoblastoma 1 [KO:K06618]
1869  
E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
1870  
E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
1871  
E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
1027  
CDKN1B; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27, Kip1) [KO:K06624]
898  
CCNE1; cyclin E1 [KO:K06626]
9134  
CCNE2; cyclin E2 [KO:K06626]
1017  
CDK2; cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [KO:K02206] [EC:2.7.11.22]
890  
CCNA2; cyclin A2 [KO:K06627]
8900  
CCNA1; cyclin A1 [KO:K06627]
4088  
SMAD3; SMAD family member 3 [KO:K04500]
Reference
  Authors
Schadler S, Hildt E
  Title
HBV life cycle: entry and morphogenesis.
  Journal
Viruses 1:185-209 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Schulze A, Gripon P, Urban S
  Title
Hepatitis B virus infection initiates with a large surface protein-dependent binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
  Journal
Hepatology 46:1759-68 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Ng SA, Lee C.
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X gene and hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
J Gastroenterol 46:974-990 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Murata M, Matsuzaki K, Yoshida K, Sekimoto G, Tahashi Y, Mori S, Uemura Y, Sakaida N, Fujisawa J, Seki T, Kobayashi K, Yokote K, Koike K, Okazaki K
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein shifts human hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling from tumor suppression to oncogenesis in early chronic hepatitis B.
  Journal
Hepatology 49:1203-17 (2009)
Reference
PMID:8764004
  Authors
Benn J, Su F, Doria M, Schneider RJ
  Title
Hepatitis B virus HBx protein induces transcription factor AP-1 by activation of  extracellular signal-regulated and c-Jun N-terminal mitogen-activated protein kinases.
  Journal
J Virol 70:4978-85 (1996)
Reference
  Authors
Bouchard MJ, Schneider RJ
  Title
The enigmatic X gene of hepatitis B virus.
  Journal
J Virol 78:12725-34 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Park NH, Song IH, Chung YH
  Title
Chronic hepatitis B in hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Postgrad Med J 82:507-15 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kwun HJ, Jang KL
  Title
Natural variants of hepatitis B virus X protein have differential effects on the  expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene.
  Journal
Nucleic Acids Res 32:2202-13 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Yoo YG, Lee MO
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces expression of Fas ligand gene through enhancing transcriptional activity of early growth response factor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:36242-9 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Cougot D, Wu Y, Cairo S, Caramel J, Renard CA, Levy L, Buendia MA, Neuveut C
  Title
The hepatitis B virus X protein functionally interacts with CREB-binding protein/p300 in the regulation of CREB-mediated transcription.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:4277-87 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Kim SY, Kim JK, Kim HJ, Ahn JK
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein sensitizes UV-induced apoptosis by transcriptional transactivation of Fas ligand gene expression.
  Journal
IUBMB Life 57:651-8 (2005)
Reference
PMID:9325306
  Authors
Rehemtulla A, Hamilton CA, Chinnaiyan AM, Dixit VM
  Title
Ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of CD-95 (Fas/APO-1).
  Journal
J Biol Chem 272:25783-6 (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Zhang X, Zhang H, Ye L
  Title
Effects of hepatitis B virus X protein on the development of liver cancer.
  Journal
J Lab Clin Med 147:58-66 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Diao J, Khine AA, Sarangi F, Hsu E, Iorio C, Tibbles LA, Woodgett JR, Penninger J, Richardson CD
  Title
X protein of hepatitis B virus inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis and is associated  with up-regulation of the SAPK/JNK pathway.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:8328-40 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Sun B, Karin M
  Title
NF-kappaB signaling, liver disease and hepatoprotective agents.
  Journal
Oncogene 27:6228-44 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Weil R, Sirma H, Giannini C, Kremsdorf D, Bessia C, Dargemont C, Brechot C, Israel A
  Title
Direct association and nuclear import of the hepatitis B virus X protein with the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 19:6345-54 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Um HR, Lim WC, Chae SY, Park S, Park JH, Cho H
  Title
Raf-1 and protein kinase B regulate cell survival through the activation of NF-kappaB in hepatitis B virus X-expressing cells.
  Journal
Virus Res 125:1-8 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Chung TW, Lee YC, Kim CH
  Title
Hepatitis B viral HBx induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression through  activation of ERK and PI-3K/AKT pathways: involvement of invasive potential.
  Journal
FASEB J 18:1123-5 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Kim HJ, Kim SY, Kim J, Lee H, Choi M, Kim JK, Ahn JK
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces apoptosis by enhancing translocation of Bax to mitochondria.
  Journal
IUBMB Life 60:473-80 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Terradillos O, de La Coste A, Pollicino T, Neuveut C, Sitterlin D, Lecoeur H, Gougeon ML, Kahn A, Buendia MA
  Title
The hepatitis B virus X protein abrogates Bcl-2-mediated protection against Fas apoptosis in the liver.
  Journal
Oncogene 21:377-86 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Lee YI, Kang-Park S, Do SI, Lee YI
  Title
The hepatitis B virus-X protein activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent survival signaling cascade.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:16969-77 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Huang WC, Chen WS, Chen YJ, Wang LY, Hsu SC, Chen CC, Hung MC
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces IKKalpha nuclear translocation via Akt-dependent phosphorylation to promote the motility of hepatocarcinoma cells.
  Journal
J Cell Physiol 227:1446-54 (2012)
Reference
  Authors
Chung TW, Lee YC, Ko JH, Kim CH
  Title
Hepatitis B Virus X protein modulates the expression of PTEN by inhibiting the function of p53, a transcriptional activator in liver cells.
  Journal
Cancer Res 63:3453-8 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Matsuda Y, Ichida T
  Title
Impact of hepatitis B virus X protein on the DNA damage response during hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Med Mol Morphol 42:138-42 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Benhenda S, Cougot D, Buendia MA, Neuveut C
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein molecular functions and its role in virus life cycle  and pathogenesis.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 103:75-109 (2009)
Reference
PMID:9843511
  Authors
Lara-Pezzi E, Armesilla AL, Majano PL, Redondo JM, Lopez-Cabrera M
  Title
The hepatitis B virus X protein activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) by a cyclosporin A-sensitive pathway.
  Journal
EMBO J 17:7066-77 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Gurtsevitch VE
  Title
Human oncogenic viruses: hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses and their role in hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Biochemistry (Mosc) 73:504-13 (2008)
Reference
PMID:9738022
  Authors
Lee YH, Yun Y
  Title
HBx protein of hepatitis B virus activates Jak1-STAT signaling.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:25510-5 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Waris G, Huh KW, Siddiqui A
  Title
Mitochondrially associated hepatitis B virus X protein constitutively activates transcription factors STAT-3 and NF-kappa B via oxidative stress.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 21:7721-30 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Diao J, Garces R, Richardson CD
  Title
X protein of hepatitis B virus modulates cytokine and growth factor related signal transduction pathways during the course of viral infections and hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 12:189-205 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Mayr B, Montminy M
  Title
Transcriptional regulation by the phosphorylation-dependent factor CREB.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:599-609 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Dandri M, Locarnini S
  Title
New insight in the pathobiology of hepatitis B virus infection.
  Journal
Gut 61 Suppl 1:i6-17 (2012)
Reference
  Authors
Lang T, Lo C, Skinner N, Locarnini S, Visvanathan K, Mansell A
  Title
The hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) targets and suppresses activation of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway.
  Journal
J Hepatol 55:762-9 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Wang H, Ryu WS
  Title
Hepatitis B virus polymerase blocks pattern recognition receptor signaling via interaction with DDX3: implications for immune evasion.
  Journal
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000986 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Wu M, Xu Y, Lin S, Zhang X, Xiang L, Yuan Z
  Title
Hepatitis B virus polymerase inhibits the interferon-inducible MyD88 promoter by  blocking nuclear translocation of Stat1.
  Journal
J Gen Virol 88:3260-9 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Klein A, Guhl E, Tzeng YJ, Fuhrhop J, Levrero M, Graessmann M, Graessmann A
  Title
HBX causes cyclin D1 overexpression and development of breast cancer in transgenic animals that are heterozygous for p53.
  Journal
Oncogene 22:2910-9 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Bouchard M, Giannakopoulos S, Wang EH, Tanese N, Schneider RJ
  Title
Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activation of cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 complexes and G1 transit via a Src kinase pathway.
  Journal
J Virol 75:4247-57 (2001)
KO pathway
 

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