KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05161Help
Entry
hsa05161                    Pathway                                

Name
Hepatitis B - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and converted into a covalently closed circular molecule cccDNA. The cccDNA is the template for transcription of all viral RNAs including the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), encoding for 7 viral proteins: large, middle, and small envelope proteins (LHBs, MHBs, and SHBs) that form the surface antigen (HBsAg), the core antigen (HBcAg), the e antigen (HBeAg), the HBV polymerase, and the regulatory protein X (HBx). The pgRNA interacts with the viral polymerase protein to initiate the encapsidation into the core particles. Through endoplasmic reticulum, the core particles finish assembling with the envelope proteins and are released. HBV infection leads to a wide spectrum of liver diseases raging from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of liver injury is still not clear. However, HBV proteins target host proteins, involved in a variety of functions, thus regulating transcription, cellular signaling cascades, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
hsa05161  Hepatitis B
hsa05161

Ortholog table
Network
N00267  HBV HBx to host-cell-protein activation
N00268  HBV HBx to host-cell-protein inhibition
Disease
H00048  Hepatocellular carcinoma
Drug
D02747  Peginterferon alfa-2a (USAN/INN)
D03305  Interferon alfa (NAMALWA) (JP17)
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
3339  HSPG2; heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 [KO:K06255]
5599  MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5602  MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5601  MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
7040  TGFB1; transforming growth factor beta 1 [KO:K13375]
7042  TGFB2; transforming growth factor beta 2 [KO:K13376]
7043  TGFB3; transforming growth factor beta 3 [KO:K13377]
7046  TGFBR1; transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 [KO:K04674] [EC:2.7.11.30]
1026  CDKN1A; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A [KO:K06625]
4609  MYC; MYC proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor [KO:K04377]
1959  EGR2; early growth response 2 [KO:K12496]
1960  EGR3; early growth response 3 [KO:K12497]
1387  CREBBP; CREB binding protein [KO:K04498] [EC:2.3.1.48]
2033  EP300; E1A binding protein p300 [KO:K04498] [EC:2.3.1.48]
356  FASLG; Fas ligand [KO:K04389]
355  FAS; Fas cell surface death receptor [KO:K04390]
8772  FADD; Fas associated via death domain [KO:K02373]
841  CASP8; caspase 8 [KO:K04398] [EC:3.4.22.61]
843  CASP10; caspase 10 [KO:K04400] [EC:3.4.22.63]
1642  DDB1; damage specific DNA binding protein 1 [KO:K10610]
1643  DDB2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
4214  MAP3K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04416] [EC:2.7.11.25]
7534  YWHAZ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein zeta [KO:K16197]
7529  YWHAB; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein beta [KO:K16197]
10971  YWHAQ; tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein theta [KO:K16197]
6416  MAP2K4; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 [KO:K04430] [EC:2.7.12.2]
4792  NFKBIA; NFKB inhibitor alpha [KO:K04734]
4790  NFKB1; nuclear factor kappa B subunit 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  RELA; RELA proto-oncogene, NF-kB subunit [KO:K04735]
4318  MMP9; matrix metallopeptidase 9 [KO:K01403] [EC:3.4.24.35]
596  BCL2; BCL2, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02161]
5290  PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
5296  PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
207  AKT1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  AKT2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  AKT3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
1147  CHUK; conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase [KO:K04467] [EC:2.7.11.10]
3551  IKBKB; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit beta [KO:K07209] [EC:2.7.11.10]
8517  IKBKG; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit gamma [KO:K07210]
572  BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
7157  TP53; tumor protein p53 [KO:K04451]
5728  PTEN; phosphatase and tensin homolog [KO:K01110] [EC:3.1.3.67 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
100506742  CASP12; caspase 12 (gene/pseudogene) [KO:K04741] [EC:3.4.22.-]
317  APAF1; apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 [KO:K02084]
10542  LAMTOR5; late endosomal/lysosomal adaptor, MAPK and MTOR activator 5 [KO:K16344]
332  BIRC5; baculoviral IAP repeat containing 5 [KO:K08731]
581  BAX; BCL2 associated X, apoptosis regulator [KO:K02159]
54205  CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
842  CASP9; caspase 9 [KO:K04399] [EC:3.4.22.62]
836  CASP3; caspase 3 [KO:K02187] [EC:3.4.22.56]
7419  VDAC3; voltage dependent anion channel 3 [KO:K15041]
4772  NFATC1; nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 [KO:K04446]
4773  NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T cells 2 [KO:K17332]
4775  NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T cells 3 [KO:K17333]
4776  NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T cells 4 [KO:K17334]
7124  TNF; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
2185  PTK2B; protein tyrosine kinase 2 beta [KO:K05871] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6714  SRC; SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05704] [EC:2.7.10.2]
2885  GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
3265  HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  NRAS; NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07828]
3725  JUN; Jun proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04448]
4089  SMAD4; SMAD family member 4 [KO:K04501]
1386  ATF2; activating transcription factor 2 [KO:K04450]
3576  CXCL8; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8 [KO:K10030]
5111  PCNA; proliferating cell nuclear antigen [KO:K04802]
3716  JAK1; Janus kinase 1 [KO:K11217] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6772  STAT1; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [KO:K11220]
6773  STAT2; signal transducer and activator of transcription 2 [KO:K11221]
6774  STAT3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [KO:K04692]
6775  STAT4; signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 [KO:K11222]
6776  STAT5A; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A [KO:K11223]
6777  STAT5B; signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [KO:K11224]
6778  STAT6; signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 [KO:K11225]
537  ATP6AP1; ATPase H+ transporting accessory protein 1 [KO:K03662]
5578  PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5579  PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5582  PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5894  RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5605  MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
1385  CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
10488  CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
90993  CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 [KO:K09048]
64764  CREB3L2; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 2 [KO:K09048]
84699  CREB3L3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 3 [KO:K09048]
148327  CREB3L4; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 4 [KO:K09048]
468  ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
9586  CREB5; cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
1388  ATF6B; activating transcription factor 6 beta [KO:K09049]
2353  FOS; Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K04379]
2002  ELK1; ELK1, ETS transcription factor [KO:K04375]
1654  DDX3X; DEAD-box helicase 3, X-linked [KO:K11594] [EC:3.6.4.13]
3439  IFNA1; interferon alpha 1 [KO:K05414]
3440  IFNA2; interferon alpha 2 [KO:K05414]
3441  IFNA4; interferon alpha 4 [KO:K05414]
3442  IFNA5; interferon alpha 5 [KO:K05414]
3443  IFNA6; interferon alpha 6 [KO:K05414]
3444  IFNA7; interferon alpha 7 [KO:K05414]
3445  IFNA8; interferon alpha 8 [KO:K05414]
3446  IFNA10; interferon alpha 10 [KO:K05414]
3447  IFNA13; interferon alpha 13 [KO:K05414]
3448  IFNA14; interferon alpha 14 [KO:K05414]
3449  IFNA16; interferon alpha 16 [KO:K05414]
3451  IFNA17; interferon alpha 17 [KO:K05414]
3452  IFNA21; interferon alpha 21 [KO:K05414]
3454  IFNAR1; interferon alpha and beta receptor subunit 1 [KO:K05130]
7098  TLR3; toll like receptor 3 [KO:K05401]
148022  TICAM1; toll like receptor adaptor molecule 1 [KO:K05842]
23586  DDX58; DExD/H-box helicase 58 [KO:K12646] [EC:3.6.3.14]
64135  IFIH1; interferon induced with helicase C domain 1 [KO:K12647] [EC:3.6.4.13]
57506  MAVS; mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein [KO:K12648]
9641  IKBKE; inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit epsilon [KO:K07211] [EC:2.7.11.10]
29110  TBK1; TANK binding kinase 1 [KO:K05410] [EC:2.7.11.10]
3661  IRF3; interferon regulatory factor 3 [KO:K05411]
3665  IRF7; interferon regulatory factor 7 [KO:K09447]
7099  TLR4; toll like receptor 4 [KO:K10160]
353376  TICAM2; toll like receptor adaptor molecule 2 [KO:K05409]
3456  IFNB1; interferon beta 1 [KO:K05415]
7097  TLR2; toll like receptor 2 [KO:K10159]
114609  TIRAP; TIR domain containing adaptor protein [KO:K05403]
4615  MYD88; myeloid differentiation primary response 88 [KO:K04729]
3569  IL6; interleukin 6 [KO:K05405]
595  CCND1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
1019  CDK4; cyclin dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:2.7.11.22]
1021  CDK6; cyclin dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:2.7.11.22]
5925  RB1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
1869  E2F1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
1870  E2F2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
1871  E2F3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
1027  CDKN1B; cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1B [KO:K06624]
898  CCNE1; cyclin E1 [KO:K06626]
9134  CCNE2; cyclin E2 [KO:K06626]
1017  CDK2; cyclin dependent kinase 2 [KO:K02206] [EC:2.7.11.22]
890  CCNA2; cyclin A2 [KO:K06627]
8900  CCNA1; cyclin A1 [KO:K06627]
4088  SMAD3; SMAD family member 3 [KO:K04500]
Reference
  Authors
Schadler S, Hildt E
  Title
HBV life cycle: entry and morphogenesis.
  Journal
Viruses 1:185-209 (2009)
DOI:10.3390/v1020185
Reference
  Authors
Schulze A, Gripon P, Urban S
  Title
Hepatitis B virus infection initiates with a large surface protein-dependent binding to heparan sulfate proteoglycans.
  Journal
Hepatology 46:1759-68 (2007)
DOI:10.1002/hep.21896
Reference
  Authors
Ng SA, Lee C
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X gene and hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
J Gastroenterol 46:974-90 (2011)
DOI:10.1007/s00535-011-0415-9
Reference
  Authors
Murata M, Matsuzaki K, Yoshida K, Sekimoto G, Tahashi Y, Mori S, Uemura Y, Sakaida N, Fujisawa J, Seki T, Kobayashi K, Yokote K, Koike K, Okazaki K
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein shifts human hepatic transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling from tumor suppression to oncogenesis in early chronic hepatitis B.
  Journal
Hepatology 49:1203-17 (2009)
DOI:10.1002/hep.22765
Reference
PMID:8764004
  Authors
Benn J, Su F, Doria M, Schneider RJ
  Title
Hepatitis B virus HBx protein induces transcription factor AP-1 by activation of extracellular signal-regulated and c-Jun N-terminal mitogen-activated protein kinases.
  Journal
J Virol 70:4978-85 (1996)
Reference
  Authors
Bouchard MJ, Schneider RJ
  Title
The enigmatic X gene of hepatitis B virus.
  Journal
J Virol 78:12725-34 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/JVI.78.23.12725-12734.2004
Reference
  Authors
Park NH, Song IH, Chung YH
  Title
Chronic hepatitis B in hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Postgrad Med J 82:507-15 (2006)
DOI:10.1136/pgmj.2006.047431
Reference
  Authors
Kwun HJ, Jang KL
  Title
Natural variants of hepatitis B virus X protein have differential effects on the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 gene.
  Journal
Nucleic Acids Res 32:2202-13 (2004)
DOI:10.1093/nar/gkh553
Reference
  Authors
Yoo YG, Lee MO
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces expression of Fas ligand gene through enhancing transcriptional activity of early growth response factor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:36242-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M401290200
Reference
  Authors
Cougot D, Wu Y, Cairo S, Caramel J, Renard CA, Levy L, Buendia MA, Neuveut C
  Title
The hepatitis B virus X protein functionally interacts with CREB-binding protein/p300 in the regulation of CREB-mediated transcription.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:4277-87 (2007)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M606774200
Reference
  Authors
Kim SY, Kim JK, Kim HJ, Ahn JK
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein sensitizes UV-induced apoptosis by transcriptional transactivation of Fas ligand gene expression.
  Journal
IUBMB Life 57:651-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1080/15216540500239697
Reference
PMID:9325306
  Authors
Rehemtulla A, Hamilton CA, Chinnaiyan AM, Dixit VM
  Title
Ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis is mediated by activation of CD-95 (Fas/APO-1).
  Journal
J Biol Chem 272:25783-6 (1997)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.272.41.25783
Reference
  Authors
Zhang X, Zhang H, Ye L
  Title
Effects of hepatitis B virus X protein on the development of liver cancer.
  Journal
J Lab Clin Med 147:58-66 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.lab.2005.10.003
Reference
  Authors
Diao J, Khine AA, Sarangi F, Hsu E, Iorio C, Tibbles LA, Woodgett JR, Penninger J, Richardson CD
  Title
X protein of hepatitis B virus inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis and is associated with up-regulation of the SAPK/JNK pathway.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:8328-40 (2001)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M006026200
Reference
  Authors
Sun B, Karin M
  Title
NF-kappaB signaling, liver disease and hepatoprotective agents.
  Journal
Oncogene 27:6228-44 (2008)
DOI:10.1038/onc.2008.300
Reference
  Authors
Weil R, Sirma H, Giannini C, Kremsdorf D, Bessia C, Dargemont C, Brechot C, Israel A
  Title
Direct association and nuclear import of the hepatitis B virus X protein with the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 19:6345-54 (1999)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.19.9.6345
Reference
  Authors
Um HR, Lim WC, Chae SY, Park S, Park JH, Cho H
  Title
Raf-1 and protein kinase B regulate cell survival through the activation of NF-kappaB in hepatitis B virus X-expressing cells.
  Journal
Virus Res 125:1-8 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.virusres.2006.11.007
Reference
  Authors
Chung TW, Lee YC, Kim CH
  Title
Hepatitis B viral HBx induces matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression through activation of ERK and PI-3K/AKT pathways: involvement of invasive potential.
  Journal
FASEB J 18:1123-5 (2004)
DOI:10.1096/fj.03-1429fje
Reference
  Authors
Kim HJ, Kim SY, Kim J, Lee H, Choi M, Kim JK, Ahn JK
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces apoptosis by enhancing translocation of Bax to mitochondria.
  Journal
IUBMB Life 60:473-80 (2008)
DOI:10.1002/iub.68
Reference
  Authors
Terradillos O, de La Coste A, Pollicino T, Neuveut C, Sitterlin D, Lecoeur H, Gougeon ML, Kahn A, Buendia MA
  Title
The hepatitis B virus X protein abrogates Bcl-2-mediated protection against Fas apoptosis in the liver.
  Journal
Oncogene 21:377-86 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1205110
Reference
  Authors
Lee YI, Kang-Park S, Do SI, Lee YI
  Title
The hepatitis B virus-X protein activates a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent survival signaling cascade.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:16969-77 (2001)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M011263200
Reference
  Authors
Huang WC, Chen WS, Chen YJ, Wang LY, Hsu SC, Chen CC, Hung MC
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces IKKalpha nuclear translocation via Akt-dependent phosphorylation to promote the motility of hepatocarcinoma cells.
  Journal
J Cell Physiol 227:1446-54 (2012)
DOI:10.1002/jcp.22860
Reference
  Authors
Chung TW, Lee YC, Ko JH, Kim CH
  Title
Hepatitis B Virus X protein modulates the expression of PTEN by inhibiting the function of p53, a transcriptional activator in liver cells.
  Journal
Cancer Res 63:3453-8 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Matsuda Y, Ichida T
  Title
Impact of hepatitis B virus X protein on the DNA damage response during hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Med Mol Morphol 42:138-42 (2009)
DOI:10.1007/s00795-009-0457-8
Reference
  Authors
Benhenda S, Cougot D, Buendia MA, Neuveut C
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein molecular functions and its role in virus life cycle and pathogenesis.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 103:75-109 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-230X(09)03004-8
Reference
PMID:9843511
  Authors
Lara-Pezzi E, Armesilla AL, Majano PL, Redondo JM, Lopez-Cabrera M
  Title
The hepatitis B virus X protein activates nuclear factor of activated T cells (NF-AT) by a cyclosporin A-sensitive pathway.
  Journal
EMBO J 17:7066-77 (1998)
DOI:10.1093/emboj/17.23.7066
Reference
  Authors
Gurtsevitch VE
  Title
Human oncogenic viruses: hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses and their role in hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Biochemistry (Mosc) 73:504-13 (2008)
DOI:10.1134/S0006297908050039
Reference
PMID:9738022
  Authors
Lee YH, Yun Y
  Title
HBx protein of hepatitis B virus activates Jak1-STAT signaling.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:25510-5 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.39.25510
Reference
  Authors
Waris G, Huh KW, Siddiqui A
  Title
Mitochondrially associated hepatitis B virus X protein constitutively activates transcription factors STAT-3 and NF-kappa B via oxidative stress.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 21:7721-30 (2001)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.21.22.7721-7730.2001
Reference
  Authors
Diao J, Garces R, Richardson CD
  Title
X protein of hepatitis B virus modulates cytokine and growth factor related signal transduction pathways during the course of viral infections and hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 12:189-205 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S1359-6101(00)00034-4
Reference
  Authors
Mayr B, Montminy M
  Title
Transcriptional regulation by the phosphorylation-dependent factor CREB.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 2:599-609 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35085068
Reference
  Authors
Dandri M, Locarnini S
  Title
New insight in the pathobiology of hepatitis B virus infection.
  Journal
Gut 61 Suppl 1:i6-17 (2012)
DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2012-302056
Reference
  Authors
Lang T, Lo C, Skinner N, Locarnini S, Visvanathan K, Mansell A
  Title
The hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) targets and suppresses activation of the toll-like receptor signaling pathway.
  Journal
J Hepatol 55:762-9 (2011)
DOI:10.1016/j.jhep.2010.12.042
Reference
  Authors
Wang H, Ryu WS
  Title
Hepatitis B virus polymerase blocks pattern recognition receptor signaling via interaction with DDX3: implications for immune evasion.
  Journal
PLoS Pathog 6:e1000986 (2010)
DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000986
Reference
  Authors
Wu M, Xu Y, Lin S, Zhang X, Xiang L, Yuan Z
  Title
Hepatitis B virus polymerase inhibits the interferon-inducible MyD88 promoter by blocking nuclear translocation of Stat1.
  Journal
J Gen Virol 88:3260-9 (2007)
DOI:10.1099/vir.0.82959-0
Reference
  Authors
Klein A, Guhl E, Tzeng YJ, Fuhrhop J, Levrero M, Graessmann M, Graessmann A
  Title
HBX causes cyclin D1 overexpression and development of breast cancer in transgenic animals that are heterozygous for p53.
  Journal
Oncogene 22:2910-9 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1206539
Reference
  Authors
Bouchard M, Giannakopoulos S, Wang EH, Tanese N, Schneider RJ
  Title
Hepatitis B virus HBx protein activation of cyclin A-cyclin-dependent kinase 2 complexes and G1 transit via a Src kinase pathway.
  Journal
J Virol 75:4247-57 (2001)
DOI:10.1128/JVI.75.9.4247-4257.2001
KO pathway
ko05161   

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