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ko00230                     Pathway                                

Purine metabolism
Metabolism; Nucleotide metabolism
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Pathway map
ko00230  Purine metabolism

Ortholog table
M00005  PRPP biosynthesis, ribose 5P => PRPP [PATH:ko00230]
M00048  Inosine monophosphate biosynthesis, PRPP + glutamine => IMP [PATH:ko00230]
M00049  Adenine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, IMP => ADP,ATP [PATH:ko00230]
M00050  Guanine ribonucleotide biosynthesis IMP => GDP,GTP [PATH:ko00230]
M00546  Purine degradation, xanthine => urea [PATH:ko00230]
H00184  Hypermethioninemia
H00192  Xanthinuria
H00194  Lesch-Nyhan syndrome
H00195  Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency
H00196  Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase I superactivity
H00197  Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency
H00469  Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome (MDS)
H00481  Cone-rod dystrophy and cone dystrophy
H00494  Desbuquois syndrome
H00674  Anemia due to disorders of nucleotide metabolism
H00761  SEMD, Pakistani type
H00824  Calcification of joints and arteries
H00837  Leber congenital amaurosis (LCR)
H00946  Arts syndrome
H00966  AICA-ribosiduria
H01002  Generalized arterial calcification of infancy
H01096  Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency
H01118  Progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO)
H01128  Reticular dysgenesis
H01394  Cole disease
H01532  Gout
H01570  Autosomal dominant striatal degeneration (ADSD)
D03086  Benurestat (USAN/INN)
D03516  Cipamfylline (USAN/INN)
D04234  Flurofamide (USAN/INN)
Other DBs
BSID: 307
GO: 0042278
K13988  ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase [EC:]
K01515  ADP-ribose pyrophosphatase [EC:]
K01517  manganese-dependent ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase [EC:]
K13987  ADP-sugar pyrophosphatase / 8-oxo-dGDP phosphatase / ADP-D-ribose pyrophosphorylase [EC: 3.6.1.-]
K18453  ADP-ribose/FAD diphosphatase [EC:]
K08312  ADP-ribose diphosphatase [EC:3.6.1.-]
K18447  ADP-sugar diphosphatase [EC:]
K01839  phosphopentomutase [EC:]
K22199  phosphopentomutase [EC:]
K01835  phosphoglucomutase [EC:]
K15778  phosphomannomutase / phosphoglucomutase [EC:]
K15779  phosphoglucomutase / phosphopentomutase [EC:]
K00948  ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase [EC:]
K00764  amidophosphoribosyltransferase [EC:]
K11787  phosphoribosylamine--glycine ligase / phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase / phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase [EC:]
K11788  phosphoribosylamine--glycine ligase / phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase [EC:]
K01945  phosphoribosylamine---glycine ligase [EC:]
K13713  fusion protein PurCD [EC:]
K00601  phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase [EC:]
K11175  phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 1 [EC:]
K08289  phosphoribosylglycinamide formyltransferase 2 [EC:]
K01492  phosphoribosylglycinamide/phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase [EC:]
K01952  phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine synthase [EC:]
K01933  phosphoribosylformylglycinamidine cyclo-ligase [EC:]
K01587  phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase / phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase [EC:]
K11808  phosphoribosylaminoimidazole carboxylase [EC:]
K01589  5-(carboxyamino)imidazole ribonucleotide synthase [EC:]
K01588  5-(carboxyamino)imidazole ribonucleotide mutase [EC:]
K01923  phosphoribosylaminoimidazole-succinocarboxamide synthase [EC:]
K01756  adenylosuccinate lyase [EC:]
K00602  phosphoribosylaminoimidazolecarboxamide formyltransferase / IMP cyclohydrolase [EC:]
K06863  5-formaminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-(beta)-D-ribofuranosyl 5'-monophosphate synthetase [EC:]
K11176  IMP cyclohydrolase [EC:]
K00759  adenine phosphoribosyltransferase [EC:]
K01081  5'-nucleotidase [EC:]
K19970  5'-nucleotidase [EC:]
K11751  5'-nucleotidase / UDP-sugar diphosphatase [EC:]
K03787  5'-nucleotidase [EC:]
K08723  5'-nucleotidase [EC:]
K20881  5'-nucleotidase [EC:]
K00892  inosine kinase [EC:]
K22026  nucleoside kinase [EC:2.7.1.-]
K03783  purine-nucleoside phosphorylase [EC:]
K03784  purine-nucleoside phosphorylase [EC:]
K09913  purine/pyrimidine-nucleoside phosphorylase [EC:]
K03815  xanthosine phosphorylase [EC:2.4.2.-]
K01239  purine nucleosidase [EC:]
K10213  ribosylpyrimidine nucleosidase [EC:]
K00760  hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase [EC:]
K15780  bifunctional protein TilS/HprT [EC:]
K19836  hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase [EC:]
K00088  IMP dehydrogenase [EC:]
K00940  nucleoside-diphosphate kinase [EC:]
K18533  adenylate/nucleoside-diphosphate kinase [EC:]
K01510  apyrase [EC:]
K14641  apyrase [EC:]
K14642  golgi apyrase [EC:]
K12304  soluble calcium-activated nucleotidase 1 [EC:]
K12305  ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 4 [EC:]
K01511  ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 5/6 [EC:]
K16855  U8 snoRNA-decapping enzyme [EC:]
K01519  inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase [EC:3.6.1.-]
K02428  XTP/dITP diphosphohydrolase [EC:]
K00769  xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase [EC:]
K03816  xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase [EC:]
K00106  xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase [EC:]
K00087  xanthine dehydrogenase molybdenum-binding subunit [EC:]
K13479  xanthine dehydrogenase FAD-binding subunit [EC:]
K13480  xanthine dehydrogenase iron-sulfur-binding subunit
K13481  xanthine dehydrogenase small subunit [EC:]
K13482  xanthine dehydrogenase large subunit [EC:]
K11177  xanthine dehydrogenase YagR molybdenum-binding subunit [EC:]
K11178  xanthine dehydrogenase YagS FAD-binding subunit [EC:]
K13483  xanthine dehydrogenase YagT iron-sulfur-binding subunit
K01518  bis(5'-nucleosidyl)-tetraphosphatase [EC:]
K18445  diadenosine hexaphosphate hydrolase (ATP-forming) [EC:]
K01951  GMP synthase (glutamine-hydrolysing) [EC:]
K00364  GMP reductase [EC:]
K01487  guanine deaminase [EC:]
K00942  guanylate kinase [EC:]
K00873  pyruvate kinase [EC:]
K12406  pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L [EC:]
K00524  ribonucleotide reductase, class II [EC:]
K00525  ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase alpha chain [EC:]
K00526  ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase beta chain [EC:]
K10807  ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M1 [EC:]
K10808  ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase subunit M2 [EC:]
K00527  ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (thioredoxin) [EC:]
K21636  ribonucleoside-triphosphate reductase (formate) [EC:]
K00904  deoxyguanosine kinase [EC:]
K15518  deoxyguanosine kinase [EC:]
K01129  dGTPase [EC:]
K03040  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha [EC:]
K03043  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta [EC:]
K03046  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta' [EC:]
K13797  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta-beta' [EC:]
K03048  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit delta
K03060  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit omega [EC:]
K03042  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit A" [EC:]
K03041  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit A' [EC:]
K03044  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit B' [EC:]
K03045  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit B" [EC:]
K13798  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit B [EC:]
K03053  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit H [EC:]
K03055  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit K [EC:]
K03058  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit N [EC:]
K03047  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit D [EC:]
K03049  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit E' [EC:]
K03050  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit E" [EC:]
K03056  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit L [EC:]
K03059  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit P [EC:]
K03051  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit F [EC:]
K03052  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit G [EC:]
K03054  DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit I [EC:]
K02999  DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA1 [EC:]
K03002  DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA2 [EC:]
K03000  DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA12
K03001  DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA14
K03003  DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA34
K03004  DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA43
K03005  DNA-directed RNA polymerase I subunit RPA49
K03006  DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 [EC:]
K03010  DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2 [EC:]
K03011  DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3
K03012  DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4
K03013  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1
K03014  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC2
K03015  DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7
K03016  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC3
K03017  DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9
K03007  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC5
K03008  DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11
K03009  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC4
K03018  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC1 [EC:]
K03021  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC2 [EC:]
K03023  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC3
K03026  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC4
K14721  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC5
K03027  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I and III subunit RPAC1
K03019  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC11
K03020  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I and III subunit RPAC2
K03022  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC8
K03024  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC7
K03025  DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC6
K02335  DNA polymerase I [EC:]
K02319  DNA polymerase, archaea type [EC:]
K02322  DNA polymerase II large subunit [EC:]
K02323  DNA polymerase II small subunit [EC:]
K02337  DNA polymerase III subunit alpha [EC:]
K03763  DNA polymerase III subunit alpha, Gram-positive type [EC:]
K02338  DNA polymerase III subunit beta [EC:]
K02343  DNA polymerase III subunit gamma/tau [EC:]
K02340  DNA polymerase III subunit delta [EC:]
K02341  DNA polymerase III subunit delta' [EC:]
K02342  DNA polymerase III subunit epsilon [EC:]
K14159  ribonuclease HI / DNA polymerase III subunit epsilon [EC:]
K02345  DNA polymerase III subunit theta [EC:]
K02339  DNA polymerase III subunit chi [EC:]
K02344  DNA polymerase III subunit psi [EC:]
K02320  DNA polymerase alpha subunit A [EC:]
K02321  DNA polymerase alpha subunit B
K02684  DNA primase small subunit [EC:2.7.7.-]
K02685  DNA primase large subunit [EC:2.7.7.-]
K02327  DNA polymerase delta subunit 1 [EC:]
K02328  DNA polymerase delta subunit 2
K03504  DNA polymerase delta subunit 3
K03505  DNA polymerase delta subunit 4
K02324  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 1 [EC:]
K02325  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 2 [EC:]
K02326  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 3 [EC:]
K03506  DNA polymerase epsilon subunit 4 [EC:]
K21138  guanosine-3',5'-bis(diphosphate) 3'-pyrophosphohydrolase [EC:]
K01139  GTP diphosphokinase / guanosine-3',5'-bis(diphosphate) 3'-diphosphatase [EC:]
K01514  exopolyphosphatase [EC:]
K01524  exopolyphosphatase / guanosine-5'-triphosphate,3'-diphosphate pyrophosphatase [EC:]
K00951  GTP pyrophosphokinase [EC:]
K07816  putative GTP pyrophosphokinase [EC:]
K01768  adenylate cyclase [EC:]
K05851  adenylate cyclase, class 1 [EC:]
K05873  adenylate cyclase, class 2 [EC:]
K08041  adenylate cyclase 1 [EC:]
K08042  adenylate cyclase 2 [EC:]
K08043  adenylate cyclase 3 [EC:]
K08044  adenylate cyclase 4 [EC:]
K08045  adenylate cyclase 5 [EC:]
K08046  adenylate cyclase 6 [EC:]
K08047  adenylate cyclase 7 [EC:]
K08048  adenylate cyclase 8 [EC:]
K08049  adenylate cyclase 9 [EC:]
K11265  adenylate cyclase 10 [EC:]
K11029  anthrax edema toxin adenylate cyclase [EC:]
K12318  guanylate cyclase soluble subunit alpha [EC:]
K12319  guanylate cyclase soluble subunit beta [EC:]
K12320  heat-stable enterotoxin receptor [EC:]
K12321  guanylate cyclase 2D/E [EC:]
K12322  guanylate cyclase 2F [EC:]
K22600  guanylate cyclase 2G [EC:]
K12323  atrial natriuretic peptide receptor A [EC:]
K12324  atrial natriuretic peptide receptor B [EC:]
K01769  guanylate cyclase, other [EC:]
K01120  3',5'-cyclic-nucleotide phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K13755  calcium/calmodulin-dependent 3',5'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K18283  cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K19021  cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase A [EC:]
K13296  cGMP-inhibited 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase B [EC:]
K13762  cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K08718  rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit alpha [EC:]
K13756  rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta [EC:]
K13757  cone cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit alpha' [EC:]
K13758  retinal rod rhodopsin-sensitive cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit delta
K13759  retinal rod rhodopsin-sensitive cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit gamma
K13760  retinal cone rhodopsin-sensitive cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit gamma
K13763  cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase, invertebrate [EC:]
K13761  high affinity cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 9 [EC:]
K18438  cAMP and cAMP-inhibited cGMP 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 10 [EC:]
K13298  dual 3',5'-cyclic-AMP and -GMP phosphodiesterase 11 [EC:]
K01939  adenylosuccinate synthase [EC:]
K01490  AMP deaminase [EC:]
K18550  IMP and pyridine-specific 5'-nucleotidase [EC:3.1.3.-]
K00856  adenosine kinase [EC:]
K00893  deoxycitidine kinase [EC:]
K15519  deoxyadenosine/deoxycytidine kinase [EC:]
K01488  adenosine deaminase [EC:]
K19572  adenosine deaminase CECR1 [EC:]
K01241  AMP nucleosidase [EC:]
K06966  pyrimidine/purine-5'-nucleotide nucleosidase [EC:3.2.2.-]
K01486  adenine deaminase [EC:]
K21053  adenine deaminase [EC:]
K01119  2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase / 3'-nucleotidase [EC:]
K08693  2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 2'-phosphodiesterase / 3'-nucleotidase / 5'-nucleotidase [EC:]
K00939  adenylate kinase [EC:]
K18532  adenylate kinase [EC:]
K00944  nucleoside-triphosphate--adenylate kinase [EC:]
K01509  adenosinetriphosphatase [EC:]
K06928  nucleoside-triphosphatase [EC:]
K10353  deoxyadenosine kinase [EC:]
K00962  polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase [EC:]
K13293  cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 [EC:]
K18436  high affinity cAMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 7 [EC:]
K18437  high affinity cAMP-specific and IBMX-insensitive 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 8 [EC:]
K13294  cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K03651  3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase [EC:]
K01522  bis(5'-adenosyl)-triphosphatase [EC:]
K18424  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 4 [EC:]
K00988  ATP adenylyltransferase [EC:]
K19710  ATP adenylyltransferase [EC:]
K01525  bis(5'-nucleosyl)-tetraphosphatase (symmetrical) [EC:]
K13811  3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate synthase [EC:]
K00955  bifunctional enzyme CysN/CysC [EC:]
K00860  adenylylsulfate kinase [EC:]
K01513  ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1/3 [EC:]
K04765  nucleoside triphosphate diphosphatase [EC:]
K00956  sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1 [EC:]
K00957  sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [EC:]
K00958  sulfate adenylyltransferase [EC:]
K00365  urate oxidase [EC:]
K16838  urate oxidase / 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline decarboxylase [EC:]
K16839  FAD-dependent urate hydroxylase [EC:]
K07127  5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase [EC:]
K13484  5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase / 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline decarboxylase [EC:]
K19964  hydroxyisourate hydrolase [EC:]
K13485  2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline decarboxylase [EC:]
K16840  2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline decarboxylase [EC:]
K16841  allantoin racemase [EC:]
K01466  allantoinase [EC:]
K16842  allantoinase [EC:]
K01477  allantoicase [EC:]
K02083  allantoate deiminase [EC:]
K00839  (S)-ureidoglycine---glyoxylate transaminase [EC:]
K14977  (S)-ureidoglycine aminohydrolase [EC:]
K18151  ureidoglycolate amidohydrolase [EC:]
K01483  ureidoglycolate lyase [EC:]
K16856  ureidoglycolate lyase [EC:]
K01427  urease [EC:]
K01428  urease subunit alpha [EC:]
K01429  urease subunit beta [EC:]
K01430  urease subunit gamma [EC:]
K14048  urease subunit gamma/beta [EC:]
K00073  ureidoglycolate dehydrogenase (NAD+) [EC:]
K22601  oxamate carbamoyltransferase [EC:]
K22602  oxamate amidohydrolase [EC:]
K00926  carbamate kinase [EC:]
C00002  ATP
C00008  ADP
C00011  CO2
C00014  Ammonia
C00020  AMP
C00035  GDP
C00037  Glycine
C00039  DNA
C00044  GTP
C00046  RNA
C00048  Glyoxylate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00064  L-Glutamine
C00081  ITP
C00086  Urea
C00104  IDP
C00117  D-Ribose 5-phosphate
C00119  5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate
C00130  IMP
C00131  dATP
C00144  GMP
C00147  Adenine
C00169  Carbamoyl phosphate
C00206  dADP
C00209  Oxalate
C00212  Adenosine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00242  Guanine
C00262  Hypoxanthine
C00286  dGTP
C00294  Inosine
C00301  ADP-ribose
C00330  Deoxyguanosine
C00360  dAMP
C00361  dGDP
C00362  dGMP
C00366  Urate
C00385  Xanthine
C00387  Guanosine
C00499  Allantoate
C00559  Deoxyadenosine
C00575  3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00603  (S)-Ureidoglycolate
C00620  alpha-D-Ribose 1-phosphate
C00655  Xanthosine 5'-phosphate
C00700  XTP
C00802  Oxalureate
C00942  3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01228  Guanosine 3',5'-bis(diphosphate)
C01260  P1,P4-Bis(5'-adenosyl)tetraphosphate
C01261  P1,P4-Bis(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphate
C01344  dIDP
C01345  dITP
C01367  3'-AMP
C01444  Oxamate
C01762  Xanthosine
C02091  (S)-Ureidoglycine
C02348  (R)(-)-Allantoin
C02350  (S)-Allantoin
C02353  2',3'-Cyclic AMP
C02718  N-Formiminoglycine
C03090  5-Phosphoribosylamine
C03373  Aminoimidazole ribotide
C03483  Adenosine tetraphosphate
C03614  Inosine 5'-tetraphosphate
C03794  N6-(1,2-Dicarboxyethyl)-AMP
C03838  5'-Phosphoribosylglycinamide
C04051  5-Amino-4-imidazolecarboxyamide
C04376  5'-Phosphoribosyl-N-formylglycinamide
C04392  P1,P4-Bis(5'-xanthosyl) tetraphosphate
C04494  Guanosine 3'-diphosphate 5'-triphosphate
C04640  2-(Formamido)-N1-(5'-phosphoribosyl)acetamidine
C04677  1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide
C04734  1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-formamido-4-imidazolecarboxamide
C04751  1-(5-Phospho-D-ribosyl)-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxylate
C04823  1-(5'-Phosphoribosyl)-5-amino-4-(N-succinocarboxamide)-imidazole
C05239  5-Aminoimidazole
C05512  Deoxyinosine
C05513  Urate-3-ribonucleoside
C05515  5-Ureido-4-imidazole carboxylate
C05516  5-Amino-4-imidazole carboxylate
C05993  Acetyl adenylate
C06193  Guanosine 3'-phosphate
C06194  2',3'-Cyclic GMP
C06195  Imidazolone
C06196  2'-Deoxyinosine 5'-phosphate
C06197  P1,P3-Bis(5'-adenosyl) triphosphate
C06433  5'-Benzoylphosphoadenosine
C06435  5'-Butyrylphosphoinosine
C11821  5-Hydroxyisourate
C12248  5-Hydroxy-2-oxo-4-ureido-2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate
C15667  5-Carboxyamino-1-(5-phospho-D-ribosyl)imidazole
Cusa E, Obradors N, Baldoma L, Badia J, Aguilar J.
Genetic analysis of a chromosomal region containing genes required for assimilation of allantoin nitrogen and linked glyoxylate metabolism in Escherichia coli.
J Bacteriol 181:7479-84 (1999)
Xi H, Schneider BL, Reitzer L.
Purine catabolism in Escherichia coli and function of xanthine dehydrogenase in purine salvage.
J Bacteriol 182:5332-41 (2000)

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