KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00900Help
Entry
ko00900                     Pathway                                

Name
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
Description
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil monoterpenes and linalyl acetate, some sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and carotenoids and phytol. The mevalonate pathway, operating in the cytosol, gives rise to triterpenes, sterols, and most sesquiterpenes.
Class
Metabolism; Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis
ko00900

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00095  
C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate pathway [PATH:ko00900]
M00096  
C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-mevalonate pathway [PATH:ko00900]
M00364  
C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, bacteria [PATH:ko00900]
M00365  
C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, archaea [PATH:ko00900]
M00366  
C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, plants [PATH:ko00900]
M00367  
C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-plant eukaryotes [PATH:ko00900]
Disease
H00206  
Mevalonate kinase deficiency
H00663  
Restrictive dermopathy
H00999  
Coenzyme Q10 deficiency
H01123  
HMG-CoA synthase (HMGCS) deficiency
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K01662  
1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase [EC:2.2.1.7]
K00099  
1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase [EC:1.1.1.267]
K00991  
2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.60]
K12506  
2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase / 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase [EC:4.6.1.12 2.7.7.60]
K00919  
4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol kinase [EC:2.7.1.148]
K01770  
2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase [EC:4.6.1.12]
K03526  
(E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:1.17.7.1]
K03527  
4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate reductase [EC:1.17.1.2]
K00626  
acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.9]
K01641  
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [EC:2.3.3.10]
K00021  
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) [EC:1.1.1.34]
K00054  
hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase [EC:1.1.1.88]
K00869  
mevalonate kinase [EC:2.7.1.36]
K00938  
phosphomevalonate kinase [EC:2.7.4.2]
K13273  
phosphomevalonate kinase [EC:2.7.4.2]
K01597  
diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.33]
K17942  
phosphomevalonate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.-]
K06981  
isopentenyl phosphate kinase [EC:2.7.4.26]
K01823  
isopentenyl-diphosphate delta-isomerase [EC:5.3.3.2]
K00787  
farnesyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.10 2.5.1.1]
K00795  
farnesyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.10 2.5.1.1]
K14066  
geranyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.1]
K00804  
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, type III [EC:2.5.1.29 2.5.1.10 2.5.1.1]
K13789  
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, type II [EC:2.5.1.29 2.5.1.10 2.5.1.1]
K13787  
geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, type I [EC:2.5.1.29 2.5.1.10 2.5.1.1]
K12503  
short-chain Z-isoprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.68]
K15887  
(2Z,6Z)-farnesyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.92]
K14215  
trans,polycis-decaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.86]
K05355  
hexaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.83 2.5.1.82]
K00805  
heptaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.30]
K02523  
octaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.90]
K05356  
all-trans-nonaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.85 2.5.1.84]
K12504  
decaprenyl-diphosphate synthase subunit 1 [EC:2.5.1.91]
K12505  
decaprenyl-diphosphate synthase subunit 2 [EC:2.5.1.91]
K00806  
undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.31]
K11778  
ditrans,polycis-polyprenyl diphosphate synthase [EC:2.5.1.87]
K15888  
tritrans,polycis-undecaprenyl-diphosphate synthase [geranylgeranyl-diphosphate specific] [EC:2.5.1.89]
K10960  
geranylgeranyl reductase [EC:1.3.1.83]
K12742  
isoprene synthase [EC:4.2.3.27]
K05955  
protein farnesyltransferase/geranylgeranyltransferase type-1 subunit alpha [EC:2.5.1.59 2.5.1.58]
K05954  
protein farnesyltransferase subunit beta [EC:2.5.1.58]
K08658  
prenyl protein peptidase [EC:3.4.22.-]
K06013  
STE24 endopeptidase [EC:3.4.24.84]
K00587  
protein-S-isoprenylcysteine O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.100]
K15889  
prenylcysteine alpha-carboxyl methylesterase [EC:3.1.1.-]
K05906  
prenylcysteine oxidase / farnesylcysteine lyase [EC:1.8.3.6 1.8.3.5]
K15890  
NADP+-dependent farnesol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.216]
K15891  
farnesol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.216]
K15892  
farnesol kinase [EC:2.7.1.-]
K15793  
acyclic sesquiterpene synthase [EC:3.1.7.6 4.2.3.47 4.2.3.49]
Compound
C00022  
Pyruvate
C00024  
Acetyl-CoA
C00118  
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00129  
Isopentenyl diphosphate
C00235  
Dimethylallyl diphosphate
C00332  
Acetoacetyl-CoA
C00341  
Geranyl diphosphate
C00353  
Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
C00356  
(S)-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
C00418  
(R)-Mevalonate
C00448  
trans,trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C00621  
Dolichyl diphosphate
C01107  
(R)-5-Phosphomevalonate
C01126  
(2E,6E)-Farnesol
C01143  
(R)-5-Diphosphomevalonate
C01230  
all-trans-Hexaprenyl diphosphate
C02321  
Rubber particle
C03461  
2-trans,6-trans-Farnesal
C04145  
all-trans-Nonaprenyl diphosphate
C04146  
all-trans-Octaprenyl diphosphate
C04216  
all-trans-Heptaprenyl diphosphate
C04506  
Protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine
C04574  
di-trans,poly-cis-Undecaprenyl diphosphate
C04748  
Protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methyl ester
C05427  
Phytyl diphosphate
C05859  
Dehydrodolichol diphosphate
C11434  
2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate
C11435  
4-(Cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol
C11436  
2-Phospho-4-(cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol
C11437  
1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
C11453  
2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate
C11811  
1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl 4-diphosphate
C16521  
Isoprene
C16826  
2-cis,6-trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C17432  
all-trans-Decaprenyl diphosphate
C18321  
(2Z,6Z,10Z,14Z,18Z,22Z,26Z,30Z,34E)-Decaprenyl diphosphate
C19691  
Farnesylcysteine
C19760  
(2Z,6Z)-Farnesyl diphosphate
C19852  
tritrans,heptacis-Undecaprenyl diphosphate
C19853  
trans,polycis-Polyprenyl diphosphate
C20120  
S-Farnesyl protein
C20121  
trans,trans-Farnesyl phosphate
C20345  
Isopentenyl phosphate
Reference
  Authors
Lange BM, Ghassemian M.
  Title
Genome organization in Arabidopsis thaliana: a survey for genes involved in isoprenoid and chlorophyll metabolism.
  Journal
Plant Mol Biol 51:925-48 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Saiki R, Nagata A, Kainou T, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M
  Title
Characterization of solanesyl and decaprenyl diphosphate synthases in mice and humans.
  Journal
FEBS J 272:5606-22 (2005)
Reference
PMID:9858571
  Authors
Sato M, Sato K, Nishikawa S, Hirata A, Kato J, Nakano A
  Title
The yeast RER2 gene, identified by endoplasmic reticulum protein localization mutations, encodes cis-prenyltransferase, a key enzyme in dolichol synthesis.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 19:471-83 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Vannice JC, Skaff DA, Keightley A, Addo J, Wyckoff GJ, Miziorko HM
  Title
Identification in Haloferax volcanii of Phosphomevalonate Decarboxylase and Isopentenyl Phosphate Kinase as Catalysts of the Terminal Enzymatic Reactions in  an Archaeal Alternate Mevalonate Pathway.
  Journal
J Bacteriol (2013)

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