KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00942Help
Entry
ko00942                     Pathway                                

Name
Anthocyanin biosynthesis
Description
Anthocyanidins (aglycones) and anthocyanins (glycosides) are common plant pigments and belong to a structural subclass of flavonoids characterized by a 2-phenylbenzopyrylium unit. They are derived along the flavonoid modification pathways and further separated into three types, pelargonidin, cyanidin, and delphinidin, due to the different number of hydroxyl groups in the phenyl group.
Class
Metabolism; Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Anthocyanin biosynthesis
ko00942

All organismsOrtholog table
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K12930  
anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.115]
K12931  
anthocyanin 3-O-glucoside-6''-O-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.171]
K12932  
anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside-3'',6''-O-dimalonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.-]
K12933  
anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 2''-O-glucosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.297]
K17192  
cyanidin 3-O-glucoside 7-O-glucosyltransferase (acyl-glucose) [EC:2.4.1.300]
K17193  
anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 2'''-O-xylosyltransferase [EC:2.4.2.51]
K12934  
anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6'''-O-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.172]
K12935  
anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-4'''-O-malonyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.214]
K12338  
anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.298]
K17194  
cyanidin 3-O-glucoside 5-O-glucosyltransferase (acyl-glucose) [EC:2.4.1.299]
K12936  
anthocyanin 5-aromatic acyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.153]
K12937  
cyanidin-3-O-glucoside 2''-O-glucuronosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.254]
K12938  
anthocyanidin 5,3-O-glucosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K12939  
anthocyanin 3'-O-beta-glucosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.238]
Compound
C05904  
Pelargonidin
C05905  
Cyanidin
C05908  
Delphinidin
C08604  
Chrysanthemin
C08620  
Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside
C08639  
Cyanin
C08641  
Gentiodelphin
C08725  
Pelargonin
C12095  
Cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)glucoside
C12096  
Cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-p-coumaroyl)glucoside-5-O-glucoside
C12137  
Pelargonidin 3-O-glucoside
C12138  
Delphinidin 3-O-glucoside
C12139  
Petunidin 3-O-glucoside
C12140  
Malvidin 3-O-glucoside
C12141  
Peonidin 3-O-glucoside
C12640  
Pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucoside) 5-O-beta-D-glucoside
C12641  
4'''-Demalonylsalvianin
C12642  
Pelargonidin 3-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucoside)
C12643  
Cyanidin 3-O-(6-O-malonyl-beta-D-glucoside)
C12644  
Pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside
C12645  
Pelargonidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-beta-D-glucoside
C12646  
Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside 5-O-beta-D-glucoside
C12647  
Salvianin
C16288  
Pelargonidin 3-O-3'',6''-O-dimalonylglucoside
C16289  
Cyanidin 3-O-3'',6''-O-dimalonylglucoside
C16290  
Delphinidin 3-O-3'',6''-O-dimalonylglucoside
C16292  
Cyanidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside
C16293  
Peonidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside
C16294  
Delphinidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside
C16295  
Petunidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside
C16296  
Malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside
C16297  
Pelargonidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucoside)
C16298  
Cyanidin 5-O-glucoside
C16299  
Malonylshisonin
C16301  
Delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-D-glucoside
C16302  
Ternatin A1
C16303  
Ternatin C5
C16304  
Delphinidin 3-O-(6''-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside-3'-O-beta-glucoside
C16305  
Pelargonidin 3-O-sophoroside
C16306  
Cyanidin 3-O-sophoroside
C16307  
Delphinidin 3-O-sophoroside
C16312  
Delphin
C16313  
Delphinidin 3-glucoside 5-caffoyl-glucoside
C16314  
Delphinidin 3,5,3'-triglucoside
C16315  
Tulipanin
C16349  
Pelargonidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside 5-O-(6-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucoside)
C16350  
Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside 5-O-(6-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucoside)
C16351  
Delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside 5-O-(6-coumaroyl-beta-D-glucoside)
C16354  
Albireodelphin
C16367  
Delphinidin 3-O-(6-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucoside)
C16368  
Pelargonidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside
C16369  
Cyanidin 3-(6-p-caffeoyl)glucoside
C16370  
Delphinidin 3-(6-p-coumaroyl)glucoside
C16371  
Pelargonidin 3-glucoside 5-caffeoylglucoside
C16372  
Cyanidin 3-glucoside 5-caffeoylglucoside
C16373  
Cyanidin-3-O-(6''-O-malonyl-2''-O-glucuronyl)glucoside
C19762  
Cyanidin 3-O-(2-O-beta-D-glucuronosyl)-beta-D-glucoside
C20469  
Cyanidin 3,7-di-O-beta-D-glucoside
C20489  
Pelargonidin 3-O-beta-D-sambubioside
C20490  
Cyanidin 3-O-beta-D-sambubioside
C20491  
Delphinidin 3-O-beta-D-sambubioside
C20492  
Pelargonidin 5-O-beta-D-glucoside 3-O-beta-D-sambubioside
C20493  
Cyanidin 5-O-beta-D-glucoside 3-O-beta-D-sambubioside
C20494  
Delphinidin 5-O-beta-D-glucoside 3-O-beta-D-sambubioside
C20495  
Pelargonidin 3,7-di-O-beta-D-glucoside
C20496  
Delphinidin 3,7-di-O-beta-D-glucoside
Reference
  Authors
Unno H, Ichimaida F, Suzuki H, Takahashi S, Tanaka Y, Saito A, Nishino T, Kusunoki M, Nakayama T.
  Title
Structural and mutational studies of anthocyanin malonyltransferases establish the features of BAHD enzyme catalysis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:15812-22 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Kogawa K, Kazuma K, Kato N, Noda N, Suzuki M.
  Title
Biosynthesis of malonylated flavonoid glycosides on the basis of malonyltransferase activity in the petals of Clitoria ternatea.
  Journal
J Plant Physiol 164:886-94 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Tsai CJ, Harding SA, Tschaplinski TJ, Lindroth RL, Yuan Y.
  Title
Genome-wide analysis of the structural genes regulating defense phenylpropanoid metabolism in Populus.
  Journal
New Phytol 172:47-62 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Ogata J, Kanno Y, Itoh Y, Tsugawa H, Suzuki M.
  Title
Plant biochemistry: anthocyanin biosynthesis in roses.
  Journal
Nature 435:757-8 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Bowles D, Isayenkova J, Lim EK, Poppenberger B.
  Title
Glycosyltransferases: managers of small molecules.
  Journal
Curr Opin Plant Biol 8:254-63 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Morita Y, Hoshino A, Kikuchi Y, Okuhara H, Ono E, Tanaka Y, Fukui Y, Saito N, Nitasaka E, Noguchi H, Iida S.
  Title
Japanese morning glory dusky mutants displaying reddish-brown or purplish-gray flowers are deficient in a novel glycosylation enzyme for anthocyanin biosynthesis, UDP-glucose:anthocyanidin 3-O-glucoside-2''-O-glucosyltransferase, due to 4-bp insertions in the gene.
  Journal
Plant J 42:353-63 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Sawada S, Suzuki H, Ichimaida F, Yamaguchi MA, Iwashita T, Fukui Y, Hemmi H, Nishino T, Nakayama T.
  Title
UDP-glucuronic acid:anthocyanin glucuronosyltransferase from red daisy (Bellis perennis) flowers. Enzymology and phylogenetics of a novel glucuronosyltransferase involved in flower pigment biosynthesis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:899-906 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Suzuki H, Sawada S, Watanabe K, Nagae S, Yamaguchi MA, Nakayama T, Nishino T.
  Title
Identification and characterization of a novel anthocyanin malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers: an enzyme that is phylogenetically separated from other anthocyanin acyltransferases.
  Journal
Plant J 38:994-1003 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Suzuki H, Nakayama T, Yamaguchi M, Nishino T.
  Title
cDNA cloning and characterization of two Dendranthema x morifolium anthocyanin malonyltransferases with different functional activities.
  Journal
Plant Sci 166(1):89-96 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Nakayama T, Suzuki H, Nishino T.
  Title
Anthocyanin acyltransferases: specificities, mechanism, phylogenetics, and applications.
  Journal
Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 23(2-6):117-132 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Fukuchi-Mizutani M, Okuhara H, Fukui Y, Nakao M, Katsumoto Y, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Kusumi T, Hase T, Tanaka Y.
  Title
Biochemical and molecular characterization of a novel UDP-glucose:anthocyanin 3'-O-glucosyltransferase, a key enzyme for blue anthocyanin biosynthesis, from gentian.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 132:1652-63 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Springob K, Nakajima J, Yamazaki M, Saito K.
  Title
Recent advances in the biosynthesis and accumulation of anthocyanins.
  Journal
Nat Prod Rep 20:288-303 (2003)
Reference
(Manuscript M1:08444 (Revised))
  Authors
Suzuki H, Nakayama T, Yonekura-Sakakibara K, Fukui Y, Nakamura N, Nakao M, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi MA, Kusumi T, Nishino T.
  Title
Malonyl-CoA:anthocyanin 5-O-glucoside-6'''-O-malonyltransferase from scarlet sage (Salvia splendens) flowers. Enzyme purification, gene cloning, expression, and characterization.
  Journal
J Biol Chem (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Burbulis IE, Winkel-Shirley B.
  Title
Interactions among enzymes of the Arabidopsis flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:12929-34 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Brugliera F, Barri-Rewell G, Holton TA, Mason JG.
  Title
Isolation and characterization of a flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase cDNA clone corresponding to the Ht1 locus of Petunia hybrida.
  Journal
Plant J 19:441-51 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Boss PK, Davies C, Robinson SP.
  Title
Analysis of the Expression of Anthocyanin Pathway Genes in Developing Vitis vinifera L. cv Shiraz Grape Berries and the Implications for Pathway Regulation.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 111:1059-1066 (1996)
Reference
  Authors
Holton TA, Cornish EC.
  Title
Genetics and Biochemistry of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 7:1071-1083 (1995)
Reference
PMID:8130799
  Authors
Kroon J, Souer E, de Graaff A, Xue Y, Mol J, Koes R.
  Title
Cloning and structural analysis of the anthocyanin pigmentation locus Rt of Petunia hybrida: characterization of insertion sequences in two mutant alleles.
  Journal
Plant J 5:69-80 (1994)

DBGET integrated database retrieval system