KEGG   PATHWAY: ko03050Help
Entry
ko03050                     Pathway                                

Name
Proteasome
Description
The proteasome is a protein-destroying apparatus involved in many essential cellular functions, such as regulation of cell cycle, cell differentiation, signal transduction pathways, antigen processing for appropriate immune responses, stress signaling, inflammatory responses, and apoptosis. It is capable of degrading a variety of cellular proteins in a rapid and timely fashion and most substrate proteins are modified by ubiquitin before their degradation by the proteasome. The proteasome is a large protein complex consisting of a proteolytic core called the 20S particle and ancillary factors that regulate its activity in various ways. The most common form is the 26S proteasome containing one 20S core particle and two 19S regulatory particles that enable the proteasome to degrade ubiquitinated proteins by an ATP-dependent mechanism. Another form is the immunoproteasome containing two 11S regulatory particles, PA28 alpha and PA28 beta, which are induced by interferon gamma under the conditions of intensified immune response. Other regulatory particles include PA28 gamma and PA200. Although PA28 gamma also belongs to a family of activators of the 20S proteasome, it is localized within the nucleus and forms a homoheptamer. PA28 gamma has been implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PA200 has been identified as a large nuclear protein that stimulates proteasomal hydrolysis of peptides.
Class
Genetic Information Processing; Folding, sorting and degradation
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Proteasome
ko03050

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00337  
Immunoproteasome [PATH:ko03050]
M00340  
Proteasome, 20S core particle [PATH:ko03050]
M00341  
Proteasome, 19S regulatory particle (PA700) [PATH:ko03050]
M00342  
Bacterial proteasome [PATH:ko03050]
M00343  
Archaeal proteasome [PATH:ko03050]
Disease
H00790  
Keratosis linearis with ichthyosis congenita and sclerosing keratoderma
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K03033  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N3
K03035  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N5
K03036  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N6
K03037  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N7
K03038  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N8
K03039  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N9
K03030  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N11
K03031  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N12
K10881  
26 proteasome complex subunit DSS1
K03029  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N10
K03028  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N1
K03032  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N2
K06691  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit N13
K03061  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit T1
K03062  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit T2
K03066  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit T6
K03064  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit T4
K03065  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit T5
K03063  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit T3
K06696  
proteasome activator subunit 1 (PA28 alpha)
K06697  
proteasome activator subunit 2 (PA28 beta)
K06698  
proteasome activator subunit 3 (PA28 gamma)
K06699  
proteasome activator subunit 4
K13527  
proteasome-associated ATPase
K03420  
proteasome regulatory subunit
K02730  
20S proteasome subunit alpha 1 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02726  
20S proteasome subunit alpha 2 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02728  
20S proteasome subunit alpha 3 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02731  
20S proteasome subunit alpha 4 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02729  
20S proteasome subunit alpha 5 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02725  
20S proteasome subunit alpha 6 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02727  
20S proteasome subunit alpha 7 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02738  
20S proteasome subunit beta 1 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02739  
20S proteasome subunit beta 2 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02735  
20S proteasome subunit beta 3 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02734  
20S proteasome subunit beta 4 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02737  
20S proteasome subunit beta 5 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02732  
20S proteasome subunit beta 6 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02736  
20S proteasome subunit beta 7 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02741  
20S proteasome subunit beta 9 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02733  
20S proteasome subunit beta 10 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K02740  
20S proteasome subunit beta 8 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K11598  
20S proteasome subunit beta 11 [EC:3.4.25.1]
K03432  
proteasome alpha subunit [EC:3.4.25.1]
K03433  
proteasome beta subunit [EC:3.4.25.1]
K04687  
interferon gamma
K06700  
proteasome inhibitor subunit 1 (PI31)
K11599  
proteasome maturation protein
Reference
  Authors
Hirano Y, Murata S, Tanaka K
  Title
Large- and small-scale purification of mammalian 26S proteasomes.
  Journal
Methods Enzymol 399:227-40 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Saeki Y, Tanaka K
  Title
Cell biology: two hands for degradation.
  Journal
Nature 453:460-1 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Smith DM, Benaroudj N, Goldberg A
  Title
Proteasomes and their associated ATPases: a destructive combination.
  Journal
J Struct Biol 156:72-83 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Strehl B, Seifert U, Kruger E, Heink S, Kuckelkorn U, Kloetzel PM
  Title
Interferon-gamma, the functional plasticity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and MHC class I antigen processing.
  Journal
Immunol Rev 207:19-30 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Isono E, Toh-e A
  Title
[Biogenesis of the 26S proteasome in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae]
  Journal
Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 51:1224-9 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Hirano Y, Murata S
  Title
[Mechanism of the assembly of mammalian 20S proteasome]
  Journal
Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 51:1230-5 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Saeki Y, Yashiroda H
  Title
[Diversity of proteasome activators]
  Journal
Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 51:1236-40 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Darwin KH
  Title
Prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), proteasomes and pathogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 7:485-91 (2009)

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