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ko04122                     Pathway                                

Sulfur relay system
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are signalling messengers that control many cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. It is suggested that Ub-protein modification evolved from prokaryotic sulfurtransfer systems. Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and thiamin are sulfur-containing cofactors whose biosynthesis includes a key sulfur transfer step that uses unique sulfur carrier proteins, MoaD and ThiS. Ubiquitin, MoaD, and ThiS are all structurally related proteins whose C-termini are activated through adenylation by homologous E1-like enzymes. s2T biosynthesis may share similar chemistry with Moco and thiamin synthesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Urm1 and Uba4 function as part of a ubl protein conjugation system, though they have sequence homology to bacterial sulfur-transfer enzymes and the ability to function in sulfur transfer.
Genetic Information Processing; Folding, sorting and degradation
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ko04122  Sulfur relay system

Ortholog table
H00192  Xanthinuria
H01367  Infantile liver failure
K04487  cysteine desulfurase [EC:]
K01011  thiosulfate/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase [EC:]
K12161  ubiquitin related modifier 1
K11996  adenylyltransferase and sulfurtransferase [EC:]
K14168  cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 [EC:2.7.7.-]
K14169  cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 2
K14171  alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 1 [EC:]
K04085  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein A [EC:2.8.1.-]
K07237  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein B
K07236  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein C
K07235  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein D [EC:2.8.1.-]
K11179  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein E [EC:2.8.1.-]
K00566  tRNA-uridine 2-sulfurtransferase [EC:]
K21232  molybdopterin synthase sulfur carrier subunit
K03635  molybdopterin synthase catalytic subunit [EC:]
K03639  GTP 3',8-cyclase [EC:]
K03636  sulfur-carrier protein
K21142  MoaE-MoaD fusion protein [EC:]
K21028  molybdopterin synthase sulfurtransferase [EC:]
K21029  molybdopterin-synthase adenylyltransferase [EC:]
K21147  sulfur-carrier protein adenylyltransferase/sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.- 2.7.7.-]
K03637  cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate synthase [EC:]
K03831  molybdopterin adenylyltransferase [EC:]
K03151  tRNA uracil 4-sulfurtransferase [EC:]
K03154  sulfur carrier protein
K03148  sulfur carrier protein ThiS adenylyltransferase [EC:]
K21148  [CysO sulfur-carrier protein]-thiocarboxylate-dependent cysteine synthase [EC:]
K21140  [CysO sulfur-carrier protein]-S-L-cysteine hydrolase [EC:]
C00019  S-Adenosyl-L-methionine
C00041  L-Alanine
C00044  GTP
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00378  Thiamine
C00868  tRNA uridine
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C05924  Molybdopterin
C17322  tRNA containing 2-thiouridine
C18237  Molybdoenzyme molybdenum cofactor
C18239  Precursor Z
Noma A, Sakaguchi Y, Suzuki T
Mechanistic characterization of the sulfur-relay system for eukaryotic 2-thiouridine biogenesis at tRNA wobble positions.
Nucleic Acids Res 37:1335-52 (2009)
Iyer LM, Burroughs AM, Aravind L
The prokaryotic antecedents of the ubiquitin-signaling system and the early evolution of ubiquitin-like beta-grasp domains.
Genome Biol 7:R60 (2006)
Schwarz G, Mendel RR, Ribbe MW
Molybdenum cofactors, enzymes and pathways.
Nature 460:839-47 (2009)

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