KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04122Help
Entry
ko04122                     Pathway                                

Name
Sulfur relay system
Description
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are signalling messengers that control many cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. It is suggested that Ub-protein modification evolved from prokaryotic sulfurtransfer systems. Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and thiamin are sulfur-containing cofactors whose biosynthesis includes a key sulfur transfer step that uses unique sulfur carrier proteins, MoaD and ThiS. Ubiquitin, MoaD, and ThiS are all structurally related proteins whose C-termini are activated through adenylation by homologous E1-like enzymes. s2T biosynthesis may share similar chemistry with Moco and thiamin synthesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Urm1 and Uba4 function as part of a ubl protein conjugation system, though they have sequence homology to bacterial sulfur-transfer enzymes and the ability to function in sulfur transfer.
Class
Genetic Information Processing; Folding, sorting and degradation
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko04122  Sulfur relay system
ko04122

Ortholog table
Disease
H00192  Xanthinuria
H01367  Infantile liver failure
Orthology
K04487  cysteine desulfurase [EC:2.8.1.7]
K01011  thiosulfate/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.2 2.8.1.1]
K12161  ubiquitin related modifier 1
K11996  adenylyltransferase and sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.11 2.7.7.80]
K14168  cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 [EC:2.7.7.-]
K14169  cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 2
K14171  alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 1 [EC:1.11.1.15]
K04085  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein A [EC:2.8.1.-]
K07237  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein B
K07236  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein C
K07235  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein D [EC:2.8.1.-]
K11179  tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein E [EC:2.8.1.-]
K00566  tRNA-uridine 2-sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.13]
K21232  molybdopterin synthase sulfur carrier subunit
K03635  molybdopterin synthase catalytic subunit [EC:2.8.1.12]
K03639  GTP 3',8-cyclase [EC:4.1.99.22]
K03636  sulfur-carrier protein
K21142  MoaE-MoaD fusion protein [EC:2.8.1.12]
K21028  molybdopterin synthase sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.11]
K21029  molybdopterin-synthase adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.80]
K21147  sulfur-carrier protein adenylyltransferase/sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.- 2.8.1.11 2.7.7.- 2.7.7.80]
K03637  cyclic pyranopterin monophosphate synthase [EC:4.6.1.17]
K03831  molybdopterin adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.75]
K03151  tRNA uracil 4-sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.4]
K03154  sulfur carrier protein
K03148  sulfur carrier protein ThiS adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.73]
K21148  [CysO sulfur-carrier protein]-thiocarboxylate-dependent cysteine synthase [EC:2.5.1.113]
K21140  [CysO sulfur-carrier protein]-S-L-cysteine hydrolase [EC:3.13.1.6]
Compound
C00019  S-Adenosyl-L-methionine
C00041  L-Alanine
C00044  GTP
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00378  Thiamine
C00868  tRNA uridine
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C05924  Molybdopterin
C17322  tRNA containing 2-thiouridine
C18237  Molybdoenzyme molybdenum cofactor
C18239  Precursor Z
Reference
  Authors
Noma A, Sakaguchi Y, Suzuki T
  Title
Mechanistic characterization of the sulfur-relay system for eukaryotic 2-thiouridine biogenesis at tRNA wobble positions.
  Journal
Nucleic Acids Res 37:1335-52 (2009)
DOI:10.1093/nar/gkn1023
Reference
  Authors
Iyer LM, Burroughs AM, Aravind L
  Title
The prokaryotic antecedents of the ubiquitin-signaling system and the early evolution of ubiquitin-like beta-grasp domains.
  Journal
Genome Biol 7:R60 (2006)
DOI:10.1186/gb-2006-7-7-r60
Reference
  Authors
Schwarz G, Mendel RR, Ribbe MW
  Title
Molybdenum cofactors, enzymes and pathways.
  Journal
Nature 460:839-47 (2009)
DOI:10.1038/nature08302

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