KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04122Help
Entry
ko04122                     Pathway                                

Name
Sulfur relay system
Description
Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like proteins (Ubls) are signalling messengers that control many cellular functions, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA repair. It is suggested that Ub-protein modification evolved from prokaryotic sulfurtransfer systems. Molybdenum cofactor (Moco) and thiamin are sulfur-containing cofactors whose biosynthesis includes a key sulfur transfer step that uses unique sulfur carrier proteins, MoaD and ThiS. Ubiquitin, MoaD, and ThiS are all structurally related proteins whose C-termini are activated through adenylation by homologous E1-like enzymes. s2T biosynthesis may share similar chemistry with Moco and thiamin synthesis. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Urm1 and Uba4 function as part of a ubl protein conjugation system, though they have sequence homology to bacterial sulfur-transfer enzymes and the ability to function in sulfur transfer.
Class
Genetic Information Processing; Folding, sorting and degradation
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Sulfur relay system
ko04122

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00192  
Xanthinuria
H01367  
Infantile liver failure
Orthology
K04487  
cysteine desulfurase [EC:2.8.1.7]
K01011  
thiosulfate/3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase [EC:2.8.1.2 2.8.1.1]
K12161  
ubiquitin related modifier 1
K11996  
adenylyltransferase and sulfurtransferase
K14168  
cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 1 [EC:2.7.7.-]
K14169  
cytoplasmic tRNA 2-thiolation protein 2
K14171  
alkyl hydroperoxide reductase 1 [EC:1.11.1.15]
K04085  
tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein A [EC:2.8.1.-]
K07237  
tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein B
K07236  
tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein C
K07235  
tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein D [EC:2.8.1.-]
K11179  
tRNA 2-thiouridine synthesizing protein E [EC:2.8.1.-]
K00566  
tRNA-specific 2-thiouridylase [EC:2.8.1.-]
K03635  
molybdopterin synthase catalytic subunit [EC:2.-.-.-]
K03639  
molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein
K03636  
molybdopterin synthase sulfur carrier subunit
K03637  
molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein C
K03831  
molybdopterin adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.75]
K03151  
thiamine biosynthesis protein ThiI
K03154  
sulfur carrier protein
K03148  
sulfur carrier protein ThiS adenylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.73]
Compound
C00019  
S-Adenosyl-L-methionine
C00041  
L-Alanine
C00044  
GTP
C00097  
L-Cysteine
C00378  
Thiamine
C00868  
tRNA uridine
C05924  
Molybdopterin
C17322  
tRNA containing 2-thiouridine
C18237  
Molybdoenzyme molybdenum cofactor
C18239  
Precursor Z
Reference
  Authors
Noma A, Sakaguchi Y, Suzuki T
  Title
Mechanistic characterization of the sulfur-relay system for eukaryotic 2-thiouridine biogenesis at tRNA wobble positions.
  Journal
Nucleic Acids Res 37:1335-52 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Iyer LM, Burroughs AM, Aravind L
  Title
The prokaryotic antecedents of the ubiquitin-signaling system and the early evolution of ubiquitin-like beta-grasp domains.
  Journal
Genome Biol 7:R60 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Schwarz G, Mendel RR, Ribbe MW
  Title
Molybdenum cofactors, enzymes and pathways.
  Journal
Nature 460:839-47 (2009)

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