KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04144Help
Entry
ko04144                     Pathway                                

Name
Endocytosis
Description
Endocytosis is a mechanism for cells to remove ligands, nutrients, and plasma membrane (PM) proteins, and lipids from the cell surface, bringing them into the cell interior. Transmembrane proteins entering through clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE) have sequences in their cytoplasmic domains that bind to the APs (adaptor-related protein complexes) and enable their rapid removal from the PM. In addition to APs and clathrin, there are numerous accessory proteins including dynamin. Depending on the various proteins that enter the endosome membrane, these cargoes are sorted to distinct destinations. Some cargoes, such as nutrient receptors, are recycled back to the PM. Ubiquitylated membrane proteins, such as activated growth-factor receptors, are sorted into intraluminal vesicles and eventually end up in the lysosome lumen via multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). There are distinct mechanisms of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) depending upon the cargo and the cell type.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Endocytosis
ko04144

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00408  
ESCRT-0 complex [PATH:ko04144]
M00409  
ESCRT-I complex [PATH:ko04144]
M00410  
ESCRT-II complex [PATH:ko04144]
M00412  
ESCRT-III complex [PATH:ko04144]
Disease
H00078  
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD)
H00155  
Hypercholesterolemia
H00265  
Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN)
H00567  
Caveolinopathies
H00593  
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD)
H00642  
Lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome (LADD)
H00700  
Centronuclear myopathy
H00800  
Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS)
H00865  
Lethal congenital contractural syndrome (LCCS)
H01202  
Cataract
H01232  
Syndromic multisystem autoimmune disease
H01295  
Neurodegeneration due to cerebral folate transport deficiency
H01383  
LDL Receptor Disorder
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K13375  
transforming growth factor beta-1
K13376  
transforming growth factor beta-2
K13377  
transforming growth factor beta-3
K04674  
TGF-beta receptor type-1 [EC:2.7.11.30]
K04388  
TGF-beta receptor type-2 [EC:2.7.11.30]
K04679  
MAD, mothers against decapentaplegic interacting protein
K10054  
probable transcription factor PML
K04500  
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 2/3
K06503  
transferrin receptor
K04361  
epidermal growth factor receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05096  
FMS-like tyrosine kinase 1 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05098  
kinase insert domain protein receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04363  
platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05093  
fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05094  
fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05095  
fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05087  
insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05099  
proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Met [EC:2.7.10.1]
K03176  
neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05084  
receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-3 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05085  
receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05091  
proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Kit [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05126  
proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Ret [EC:2.7.10.1]
K05090  
macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor [EC:2.7.10.1]
K04357  
epidermal growth factor
K01528  
dynamin GTPase [EC:3.6.5.5]
K07941  
ADP-ribosylation factor 6
K00889  
1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase [EC:2.7.1.68]
K13712  
phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase-like protein 1 [EC:2.7.1.68]
K01115  
phospholipase D1/2 [EC:3.1.4.4]
K04644  
clathrin light chain A
K04645  
clathrin light chain B
K04646  
clathrin heavy chain
K11824  
AP-2 complex subunit alpha
K11825  
AP-2 complex subunit beta-1
K11826  
AP-2 complex subunit mu-1
K11827  
AP-2 complex subunit sigma-1
K12469  
EH domain-containing protein 2
K04707  
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL [EC:6.3.2.19]
K10591  
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4 [EC:6.3.2.19]
K13305  
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NEDD4-like [EC:6.3.2.19]
K06643  
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [EC:6.3.2.19]
K03175  
TNF receptor-associated factor 6
K11981  
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase NRDP1 [EC:6.3.2.19]
K05632  
atrophin-1 interacting protein 4 [EC:6.3.2.19]
K04678  
E3 ubiquitin ligase SMURF1/2 [EC:6.3.2.19]
K05633  
atrophin-1 interacting protein 5 (WW domain containing E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1) [EC:6.3.2.19]
K12470  
SH3 domain-containing kinase-binding protein 1
K11247  
endophilin-A
K11248  
endophilin-B
K12471  
epsin
K12472  
epidermal growth factor receptor substrate 15
K12473  
low-density lipoprotein receptor
K12474  
low density lipoprotein receptor adapter protein 1
K12475  
disabled homolog 2
K04180  
C-C chemokine receptor type 5
K04175  
interleukin 8 receptor alpha
K05050  
interleukin 8 receptor beta
K04189  
C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4
K03914  
coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor
K04141  
adrenergic receptor beta-1
K04142  
adrenergic receptor beta-2
K04143  
adrenergic receptor beta-3
K00909  
rhodopsin kinase [EC:2.7.11.14]
K00910  
beta-adrenergic-receptor kinase [EC:2.7.11.15]
K08291  
G protein-coupled receptor kinase [EC:2.7.11.16]
K04439  
beta-arrestin
K04677  
mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 6/7
K13649  
folate receptor
K06278  
caveolin 1
K12958  
caveolin 2
K12959  
caveolin 3
K06751  
major histocompatibility complex, class I
K05068  
interleukin 2 receptor alpha
K05069  
interleukin 2 receptor beta
K05070  
interleukin 2 receptor gamma
K05704  
tyrosine-protein kinase Src [EC:2.7.10.2]
K02833  
GTPase HRas
K04513  
Ras homolog gene family, member A
K03283  
heat shock 70kDa protein 1/8
K09526  
DnaJ homolog subfamily C member 6
K11839  
ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 8 [EC:3.1.2.15]
K11866  
STAM-binding protein [EC:3.1.2.15]
K07897  
Ras-related protein Rab-7A
K12182  
hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate
K04705  
signal transducing adaptor molecule
K12183  
ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101
K12186  
ESCRT-I complex subunit MVB12
K12187  
ESCRT-I complex subunit MVB12
K12184  
ESCRT-I complex subunit VPS28
K12185  
ESCRT-I complex subunit VPS37
K12188  
ESCRT-II complex subunit VPS22
K12190  
ESCRT-II complex subunit VPS36
K12189  
ESCRT-II complex subunit VPS25
K12195  
charged multivesicular body protein 6
K12194  
charged multivesicular body protein 4
K12193  
charged multivesicular body protein 3
K12191  
charged multivesicular body protein 2A
K12192  
charged multivesicular body protein 2B
K15053  
charged multivesicular body protein 7
K12196  
vacuolar protein-sorting-associated protein 4
K12199  
vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein VTA1
K12197  
charged multivesicular body protein 1
K12198  
charged multivesicular body protein 5
K12200  
programmed cell death 6-interacting protein
K12476  
EH domain-containing protein 3
K12477  
EH domain-containing protein 4
K12478  
early endosome antigen 1
K07887  
Ras-related protein Rab-5A
K07888  
Ras-related protein Rab-5B
K07889  
Ras-related protein Rab-5C
K12479  
vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 45
K12480  
Rab GTPase-binding effector protein 1
K12481  
rabenosyn-5
K07879  
Ras-related protein Rab-4A
K12482  
RUN and FYVE domain-containing protein 1
K12483  
EH domain-containing protein 1
K09235  
zinc finger protein RME1
K07904  
Ras-related protein Rab-11A
K07905  
Ras-related protein Rab-11B
K12484  
Rab11 family-interacting protein 1/2/5
K12485  
Rab11 family-interacting protein 3/4
K07891  
Ras-related protein Rab-22
K04237  
partitioning defective protein 3
K06093  
partitioning defective protein 6
K06069  
atypical protein kinase C [EC:2.7.11.13]
K04393  
cell division control protein 42
K12486  
stromal membrane-associated protein
K05737  
G protein-coupled receptor kinase interactor 1
K12487  
G protein-coupled receptor kinase interactor 2
K12488  
Arf-GAP with SH3 domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein
K12489  
Arf-GAP with coiled-coil, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein
K18439  
Arf-GAP with Rho-GAP domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1
K18440  
Arf-GAP with Rho-GAP domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2
K12490  
Arf-GAP with Rho-GAP domain, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 3
K12491  
Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 1/3
K17848  
Arf-GAP with GTPase, ANK repeat and PH domain-containing protein 2
K12492  
ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein 1
K12493  
ADP-ribosylation factor GTPase-activating protein 2/3
K12494  
PH and SEC7 domain-containing protein
K12495  
IQ motif and SEC7 domain-containing protein
Compound
C04549  
1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
C04637  
1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
C05981  
Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Acconcia F, Sigismund S, Polo S
  Title
Ubiquitin in trafficking: the network at work.
  Journal
Exp Cell Res 315:1610-8 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Donaldson JG, Porat-Shliom N, Cohen LA
  Title
Clathrin-independent endocytosis: a unique platform for cell signaling and PM remodeling.
  Journal
Cell Signal 21:1-6 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Sorkin A
  Title
Cargo recognition during clathrin-mediated endocytosis: a team effort.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 16:392-9 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Raiborg C, Stenmark H
  Title
The ESCRT machinery in endosomal sorting of ubiquitylated membrane proteins.
  Journal
Nature 458:445-52 (2009)
Reference
(Japanese)
  Authors
Ohno H, Yoshimori T (eds).
  Title
[Current Stream in Membrane Traffic] (in Japanese)
  Journal
Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso 53 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Scita G, Di Fiore PP
  Title
The endocytic matrix.
  Journal
Nature 463:464-73 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Le Roy C, Wrana JL
  Title
Clathrin- and non-clathrin-mediated endocytic regulation of cell signalling.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:112-26 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Jovic M, Sharma M, Rahajeng J, Caplan S
  Title
The early endosome: a busy sorting station for proteins at the crossroads.
  Journal
Histol Histopathol 25:99-112 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Pietiainen VM, Marjomaki V, Heino J, Hyypia T
  Title
Viral entry, lipid rafts and caveosomes.
  Journal
Ann Med 37:394-403 (2005)

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