KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04260Help
Entry
ko04260                     Pathway                                

Name
Cardiac muscle contraction
Description
Contraction of the heart is a complex process initiated by the electrical excitation of cardiac myocytes (excitation-contraction coupling, ECC). In cardiac myocytes, Ca2+ influx induced by activation of voltage-dependent L-type Ca channels (DHP receptors) upon membrane depolarization triggers the release of Ca2+ via Ca2+ release channels (ryanodine receptors) of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through a Ca2+ -induced Ca release (CICR) mechanism. Ca2+ ions released via the CICR mechanism diffuse through the cytosolic space to contractile proteins to bind to troponinC resulting in the release of inhibition induced by troponinI. The Ca2+ binding to troponinC thereby triggers the sliding of thin and thick filaments, that is, the activation of a crossbridge and subsequent cardiac force development and/or cell shortening. Recovery occurs as Ca2+ is pumped out of the cell by the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) or is returned to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) by sarco(endo)plasmic Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA) pumps on the non-junctional region of the SR.
Class
Organismal Systems; Circulatory system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Cardiac muscle contraction
ko04260

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00594  
Distal muscular dystrophies
H00656  
Scapuloperoneal myopathy (SPM)
H00698  
Nemaline myopathy
H00701  
Congenital fiber type disproportion (CFTD)
H00702  
Cap myopathy
H00703  
Myosin storage myopathy (MSM)
H00728  
Brugada syndrome (BRS)
H00746  
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP)
H00749  
Episodic ataxias
H00775  
Familial or sporadic hemiplegic migraine
H00808  
Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs)
H00811  
Distal arthrogryposis (DA)
H00831  
Primary dystonia
H01019  
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
H01216  
Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC)
H01219  
Restrictive cardiomyopathy (RCM)
H01355  
Kearns-Sayre Syndrome
H01368  
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K04850  
voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1C
K04851  
voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1D
K04853  
voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1F
K04857  
voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1S
K04862  
voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-1
K04863  
voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-2
K04864  
voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-3
K04865  
voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-4
K04858  
voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-1
K04859  
voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-2
K04860  
voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-3
K04861  
voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-4
K04866  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1
K04867  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2
K04868  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3
K04869  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4
K04870  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-5
K04871  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-6
K04872  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-7
K04873  
voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-8
K04962  
ryanodine receptor 2
K05865  
troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
K12044  
troponin I, cardiac muscle
K12045  
troponin T, cardiac muscle
K10373  
tropomyosin 1
K10374  
tropomyosin 2
K09290  
tropomyosin 3
K10375  
tropomyosin 4
K12314  
actin, alpha cardiac muscle
K17751  
myosin heavy chain 6/7
K10351  
myosin regulatory light chain 2
K12749  
myosin light chain 3
K12750  
myosin light chain 4
K00411  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase iron-sulfur subunit [EC:1.10.2.2]
K00412  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome b subunit
K00413  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase cytochrome c1 subunit
K00414  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 1
K00415  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core subunit 2
K00416  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 6
K00417  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 7
K00418  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 8
K00419  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 9
K00420  
ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase subunit 10
K02262  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3
K02256  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 [EC:1.9.3.1]
K02261  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2
K02263  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4
K02264  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5a
K02265  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5b
K02266  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6a
K02267  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6b
K02268  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6c
K02270  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7a
K02271  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7b
K02272  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7c
K02273  
cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8
K01539  
sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha [EC:3.6.3.9]
K01540  
sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta
K01538  
sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma (FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 2)
K05742  
solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 1
Compound
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00080  
H+
C00238  
Potassium cation
C01330  
Sodium cation
Reference
  Authors
Bers DM
  Title
Calcium cycling and signaling in cardiac myocytes.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 70:23-49 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Bers DM
  Title
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.
  Journal
Nature 415:198-205 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Endoh M
  Title
Signal transduction and Ca2+ signaling in intact myocardium.
  Journal
J Pharmacol Sci 100:525-37 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Endoh M
  Title
Cardiac Ca2+ signaling and Ca2+ sensitizers.
  Journal
Circ J 72:1915-25 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Bers DM, Despa S
  Title
Cardiac myocytes Ca2+ and Na+ regulation in normal and failing hearts.
  Journal
J Pharmacol Sci 100:315-22 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Gordon AM, Homsher E, Regnier M
  Title
Regulation of contraction in striated muscle.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 80:853-924 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Phrommintikul A, Chattipakorn N
  Title
Roles of cardiac ryanodine receptor in heart failure and sudden cardiac death.
  Journal
Int J Cardiol 112:142-52 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Lacinova L
  Title
Voltage-dependent calcium channels.
  Journal
Gen Physiol Biophys 24 Suppl 1:1-78 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Lingrel J, Moseley A, Dostanic I, Cougnon M, He S, James P, Woo A, O'Connor K, Neumann J
  Title
Functional roles of the alpha isoforms of the Na,K-ATPase.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 986:354-9 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Berg JS, Powell BC, Cheney RE
  Title
A millennial myosin census.
  Journal
Mol Biol Cell 12:780-94 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Parmacek MS, Solaro RJ
  Title
Biology of the troponin complex in cardiac myocytes.
  Journal
Prog Cardiovasc Dis 47:159-76 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Yamashita H, Sugiura S, Fujita H, Yasuda S, Nagai R, Saeki Y, Sunagawa K, Sugi H
  Title
Myosin light chain isoforms modify force-generating ability of cardiac myosin by changing the kinetics of actin-myosin interaction.
  Journal
Cardiovasc Res 60:580-8 (2003)

DBGET integrated database retrieval system