KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05203Help
Entry
ko05203                     Pathway                                

Name
Viral carcinogenesis
Description
There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposi's associated sarcoma virus (KSHV) contribute to 10-15% of the cancers worldwide. Via expression of many potent oncoproteins, these tumor viruses promote an aberrant cell-proliferation via modulating cellular cell-signaling pathways and escape from cellular defense system such as blocking apoptosis. Human tumor virus oncoproteins can also disrupt pathways that are necessary for the maintenance of the integrity of host cellular genome. Viruses that encode such activities can contribute to initiation as well as progression of human cancers.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancers
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Viral carcinogenesis
ko05203

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00007  
Hodgkin lymphoma
H00008  
Burkitt lymphoma
H00009  
Adult T-cell leukemia
H00025  
Penile cancer
H00030  
Cervical cancer
H00041  
Kaposi's sarcoma
H00044  
Cancer of the anal canal
H00048  
Hepatocellular carcinoma
H00054  
Nasopharyngeal cancer
Orthology
K05704  
tyrosine-protein kinase Src [EC:2.7.10.2]
K02833  
GTPase HRas
K07827  
GTPase KRas
K07828  
GTPase NRas
K04371  
mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24]
K05870  
cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1
K04450  
cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2
K04374  
cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4
K09048  
cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3
K09047  
cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5
K09049  
cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta
K10610  
DNA damage-binding protein 1
K16197  
14-3-3 protein beta/theta/zeta
K06630  
14-3-3 protein epsilon
K16198  
14-3-3 protein gamma/eta
K11217  
Janus kinase 1 [EC:2.7.10.2]
K04692  
signal transducer and activator of transcription 3
K11223  
signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A
K11224  
signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B
K02187  
caspase 3 [EC:3.4.22.56]
K08665  
hepsin (transmembrane protease, serine 1) [EC:3.4.21.-]
K00922  
phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase [EC:2.7.1.153]
K02649  
phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit
K04735  
transcription factor p65
K09254  
c-Rel proto-oncogene protein
K04469  
nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 2
K02580  
nuclear factor NF-kappa-B p105 subunit
K04451  
tumor protein p53
K06626  
cyclin E
K02206  
cyclin-dependent kinase 2 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K12496  
early growth response protein 2
K12497  
early growth response protein 3
K15041  
voltage-dependent anion channel protein 3
K03159  
lymphotoxin beta receptor TNFR superfamily member 3
K15413  
nuclear autoantigen Sp-100
K12886  
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K
K06625  
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A
K11594  
ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3X [EC:3.6.4.13]
K16195  
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 2 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04345  
protein kinase A [EC:2.7.11.11]
K11252  
histone H2B
K11254  
histone H4
K02159  
apoptosis regulator BAX
K04364  
growth factor receptor-binding protein 2
K03171  
tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1-associated DEATH domain protein
K02087  
cyclin-dependent kinase 1 [EC:2.7.11.23 2.7.11.22]
K03120  
transcription initiation factor TFIID TATA-box-binding protein
K11838  
ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 7 [EC:3.1.2.15]
K06643  
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2 [EC:6.3.2.19]
K06053  
recombining binding protein suppressor of hairless
K06063  
SNW domain-containing protein 1
K03141  
transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 1
K03142  
transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 2
K03143  
transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 3
K03144  
transcription initiation factor TFIIH subunit 4
K03136  
transcription initiation factor TFIIE subunit alpha
K03137  
transcription initiation factor TFIIE subunit beta
K15979  
staphylococcal nuclease domain-containing protein 1
K04498  
E1A/CREB-binding protein [EC:2.3.1.48]
K03124  
transcription initiation factor TFIIB
K04503  
cyclin D1
K10151  
cyclin D2
K10152  
cyclin D3
K02091  
cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K06627  
cyclin A
K03875  
F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein 1 (S-phase kinase-associated protein 2)
K16174  
small subunit ribosomal protein S18b, mitochondrial
K03172  
TNF receptor-associated factor 1
K03173  
TNF receptor-associated factor 2
K03174  
TNF receptor-associated factor 3
K09849  
TNF receptor-associated factor 5
K11218  
Janus kinase 3 [EC:2.7.10.2]
K05854  
tyrosine-protein kinase Lyn [EC:2.7.10.2]
K05855  
spleen tyrosine kinase [EC:2.7.10.2]
K02146  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit d
K10587  
ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 A [EC:6.3.2.19]
K12076  
disks large protein 1
K16175  
protein scribble
K05760  
paxillin
K14021  
Bcl-2 homologous antagonist/killer
K05411  
interferon regulatory factor 3
K03062  
26S proteasome regulatory subunit T2
K06618  
retinoblastoma-associated protein
K04681  
retinoblastoma-like protein 1
K16332  
retinoblastoma-like protein 2
K06624  
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B
K10691  
E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase UBR4 [EC:6.3.2.19]
K04448  
transcription factor AP-1
K11643  
chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 4 [EC:3.6.4.12]
K06067  
histone deacetylase 1/2 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K11404  
histone deacetylase 3 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K11406  
histone deacetylase 4/5 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K11407  
histone deacetylase 6/10 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K11408  
histone deacetylase 7 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K11405  
histone deacetylase 8 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K11409  
histone deacetylase 9 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K11418  
histone deacetylase 11 [EC:3.5.1.98]
K00873  
pyruvate kinase [EC:2.7.1.40]
K04693  
interferon regulatory factor 9
K09504  
DnaJ homolog subfamily A member 3
K06062  
histone acetyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.48]
K03122  
transcription initiation factor TFIIA large subunit
K03123  
transcription initiation factor TFIIA small subunit
K04378  
serum response factor
K07210  
inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit gamma
K04734  
NF-kappa-B inhibitor alpha
K08053  
Ras GTPase-activating protein 2
K04393  
cell division control protein 42
K04392  
Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1
K04513  
Ras homolog gene family, member A
K05768  
gelsolin
K05699  
actinin alpha
K02089  
cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [EC:2.7.11.22]
K06621  
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A
K04685  
cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B
K02216  
serine/threonine-protein kinase Chk1 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K03363  
cell division cycle 20, cofactor of APC complex
K06638  
mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD1
K15305  
vacuole morphology and inheritance protein 14
K15306  
Ran-binding protein 1
K02330  
DNA polymerase beta [EC:4.2.99.- 2.7.7.7]
K09447  
interferon regulatory factor 7
K05060  
interleukin 6 signal transducer
K04180  
C-C chemokine receptor type 5
K04183  
C-C chemokine receptor type 8
K04178  
C-C chemokine receptor type 3
K04179  
C-C chemokine receptor type 4
K04443  
mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04398  
caspase 8 [EC:3.4.22.61]
K02158  
BCL2-antagonist of cell death
K10131  
phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced protein 1
K03990  
complement component 3
K06751  
major histocompatibility complex, class I
Reference
  Authors
McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Munger K
  Title
Viruses associated with human cancer.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1782:127-50 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Moore PS, Chang Y
  Title
Why do viruses cause cancer? Highlights of the first century of human tumour virology.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 10:878-89 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Kalland KH, Ke XS, Oyan AM
  Title
Tumour virology--history, status and future challenges.
  Journal
APMIS 117:382-99 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Boccardo E, Villa LL
  Title
Viral origins of human cancer.
  Journal
Curr Med Chem 14:2526-39 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Saha A, Kaul R, Murakami M, Robertson ES
  Title
Tumor viruses and cancer biology: Modulating signaling pathways for therapeutic intervention.
  Journal
Cancer Biol Ther 10:961-78 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Zheng ZM
  Title
Viral oncogenes, noncoding RNAs, and RNA splicing in human tumor viruses.
  Journal
Int J Biol Sci 6:730-55 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Martin D, Gutkind JS
  Title
Human tumor-associated viruses and new insights into the molecular mechanisms of  cancer.
  Journal
Oncogene 27 Suppl 2:S31-42 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Zhang X, Zhang H, Ye L
  Title
Effects of hepatitis B virus X protein on the development of liver cancer.
  Journal
J Lab Clin Med 147:58-66 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Panteva M, Korkaya H, Jameel S
  Title
Hepatitis viruses and the MAPK pathway: is this a survival strategy?
  Journal
Virus Res 92:131-40 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Ng SA, Lee C.
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X gene and hepatocarcinogenesis.
  Journal
J Gastroenterol 46:974-990 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Nishida N, Goel A
  Title
Genetic and epigenetic signatures in human hepatocellular carcinoma: a systematic review.
  Journal
Curr Genomics 12:130-7 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Benhenda S, Cougot D, Buendia MA, Neuveut C
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein molecular functions and its role in virus life cycle  and pathogenesis.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 103:75-109 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Tan A, Yeh SH, Liu CJ, Cheung C, Chen PJ
  Title
Viral hepatocarcinogenesis: from infection to cancer.
  Journal
Liver Int 28:175-88 (2008)
Reference
PMID:9343405
  Authors
Klein NP, Schneider RJ
  Title
Activation of Src family kinases by hepatitis B virus HBx protein and coupled signaling to Ras.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 17:6427-36 (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Ding Q, Xia W, Liu JC, Yang JY, Lee DF, Xia J, Bartholomeusz G, Li Y, Pan Y, Li Z, Bargou RC, Qin J, Lai CC, Tsai FJ, Tsai CH, Hung MC
  Title
Erk associates with and primes GSK-3beta for its inactivation resulting in upregulation of beta-catenin.
  Journal
Mol Cell 19:159-70 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Benhenda S, Cougot D, Neuveut C, Buendia MA
  Title
Liver cell transformation in chronic HBV infection.
  Journal
Viruses 1:630-46 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Diao J, Khine AA, Sarangi F, Hsu E, Iorio C, Tibbles LA, Woodgett JR, Penninger J, Richardson CD
  Title
X protein of hepatitis B virus inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis and is associated  with up-regulation of the SAPK/JNK pathway.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:8328-40 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Arbuthnot P, Capovilla A, Kew M
  Title
Putative role of hepatitis B virus X protein in hepatocarcinogenesis: effects on  apoptosis, DNA repair, mitogen-activated protein kinase and JAK/STAT pathways.
  Journal
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 15:357-68 (2000)
Reference
PMID:9837909
  Authors
Gottlob K, Fulco M, Levrero M, Graessmann A
  Title
The hepatitis B virus HBx protein inhibits caspase 3 activity.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:33347-53 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Zhang JL, Zhao WG, Wu KL, Wang K, Zhang X, Gu CF, Li Y, Zhu Y, Wu JG
  Title
Human hepatitis B virus X protein promotes cell proliferation and inhibits cell apoptosis through interacting with a serine protease Hepsin.
  Journal
Arch Virol 150:721-41 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Cooray S
  Title
The pivotal role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signal transduction in virus survival.
  Journal
J Gen Virol 85:1065-76 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Mukherji A, Janbandhu VC, Kumar V
  Title
HBx-dependent cell cycle deregulation involves interaction with cyclin E/A-cdk2 complex and destabilization of p27Kip1.
  Journal
Biochem J 401:247-56 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Yoo YG, Lee MO
  Title
Hepatitis B virus X protein induces expression of Fas ligand gene through enhancing transcriptional activity of early growth response factor.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:36242-9 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Waris G, Huh KW, Siddiqui A
  Title
Mitochondrially associated hepatitis B virus X protein constitutively activates transcription factors STAT-3 and NF-kappa B via oxidative stress.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 21:7721-30 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Kasprzak A, Adamek A
  Title
Role of hepatitis C virus proteins (C, NS3, NS5A) in hepatic oncogenesis.
  Journal
Hepatol Res 38:1-26 (2008)
Reference
PMID:9882379
  Authors
You LR, Chen CM, Lee YH
  Title
Hepatitis C virus core protein enhances NF-kappaB signal pathway triggering by lymphotoxin-beta receptor ligand and tumor necrosis factor alpha.
  Journal
J Virol 73:1672-81 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Sato Y, Kato J, Takimoto R, Takada K, Kawano Y, Miyanishi K, Kobune M, Sato Y, Takayama T, Matunaga T, Niitsu Y
  Title
Hepatitis C virus core protein promotes proliferation of human hepatoma cells through enhancement of transforming growth factor alpha expression via activation of nuclear factor-kappaB.
  Journal
Gut 55:1801-8 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Watashi K, Hijikata M, Tagawa A, Doi T, Marusawa H, Shimotohno K
  Title
Modulation of retinoid signaling by a cytoplasmic viral protein via sequestration of Sp110b, a potent transcriptional corepressor of retinoic acid receptor, from the nucleus.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 23:7498-509 (2003)
Reference
PMID:9651361
  Authors
Hsieh TY, Matsumoto M, Chou HC, Schneider R, Hwang SB, Lee AS, Lai MM
  Title
Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:17651-9 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Wang F, Yoshida I, Takamatsu M, Ishido S, Fujita T, Oka K, Hotta H
  Title
Complex formation between hepatitis C virus core protein and p21Waf1/Cip1/Sdi1.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 273:479-84 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
You LR, Chen CM, Yeh TS, Tsai TY, Mai RT, Lin CH, Lee YH
  Title
Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with cellular putative RNA helicase.
  Journal
J Virol 73:2841-53 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Aoki H, Hayashi J, Moriyama M, Arakawa Y, Hino O
  Title
Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with 14-3-3 protein and activates the kinase Raf-1.
  Journal
J Virol 74:1736-41 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Yan XB, Battaglia S, Boucreux D, Chen Z, Brechot C, Pavio N
  Title
Mapping of the interacting domains of hepatitis C virus core protein and the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase PKR.
  Journal
Virus Res 125:79-87 (2007)
Reference
PMID:9060639
  Authors
Borowski P, Oehlmann K, Heiland M, Laufs R
  Title
Nonstructural protein 3 of hepatitis C virus blocks the distribution of the free  catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.
  Journal
J Virol 71:2838-43 (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Borowski P, Kuhl R, Laufs R, Schulze zur Wiesch J, Heiland M
  Title
Identification and characterization of a histone binding site of the non-structural protein 3 of hepatitis C virus.
  Journal
J Clin Virol 13:61-9 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Lan KH, Sheu ML, Hwang SJ, Yen SH, Chen SY, Wu JC, Wang YJ, Kato N, Omata M, Chang FY, Lee SD
  Title
HCV NS5A interacts with p53 and inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis.
  Journal
Oncogene 21:4801-11 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Chung YL, Sheu ML, Yen SH
  Title
Hepatitis C virus NS5A as a potential viral Bcl-2 homologue interacts with Bax and inhibits apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma.
  Journal
Int J Cancer 107:65-73 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Gale M Jr, Kwieciszewski B, Dossett M, Nakao H, Katze MG
  Title
Antiapoptotic and oncogenic potentials of hepatitis C virus are linked to interferon resistance by viral repression of the PKR protein kinase.
  Journal
J Virol 73:6506-16 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
He Y, Nakao H, Tan SL, Polyak SJ, Neddermann P, Vijaysri S, Jacobs BL, Katze MG
  Title
Subversion of cell signaling pathways by hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A protein via interaction with Grb2 and P85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
  Journal
J Virol 76:9207-17 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Street A, Macdonald A, McCormick C, Harris M
  Title
Hepatitis C virus NS5A-mediated activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase results in stabilization of cellular beta-catenin and stimulation of beta-catenin-responsive transcription.
  Journal
J Virol 79:5006-16 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Majumder M, Ghosh AK, Steele R, Zhou XY, Phillips NJ, Ray R, Ray RB
  Title
Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein impairs TNF-mediated hepatic apoptosis, but not by an anti-FAS antibody, in transgenic mice.
  Journal
Virology 294:94-105 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Arima N, Kao CY, Licht T, Padmanabhan R, Sasaguri Y, Padmanabhan R
  Title
Modulation of cell growth by the hepatitis C virus nonstructural protein NS5A.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:12675-84 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
He Y, Staschke KA, Tan SL
  Title
HCV NS5A: A Multifunctional Regulator of Cellular Pathways and Virus Replication
  Journal
(2006)
Reference
  Authors
Qadri I, Iwahashi M, Simon F
  Title
Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein binds TBP and p53, inhibiting their DNA binding and p53 interactions with TBP and ERCC3.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1592:193-204 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Spender LC, Inman GJ
  Title
Inhibition of germinal centre apoptotic programmes by epstein-barr virus.
  Journal
Adv Hematol 2011:829525 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Klein G, Klein E, Kashuba E
  Title
Interaction of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) with human B-lymphocytes.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 396:67-73 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Saha A, Robertson ES
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphomas: pathogenesis and clinical outcomes.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 17:3056-63 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Young LS, Rickinson AB.
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Holowaty MN, Sheng Y, Nguyen T, Arrowsmith C, Frappier L
  Title
Protein interaction domains of the ubiquitin-specific protease, USP7/HAUSP.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:47753-61 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Harada S, Yalamanchili R, Kieff E
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 has at least two N-terminal domains that mediate self-association.
  Journal
J Virol 75:2482-7 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Peng CW, Zhao B, Kieff E
  Title
Four EBNA2 domains are important for EBNALP coactivation.
  Journal
J Virol 78:11439-42 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Peng R, Moses SC, Tan J, Kremmer E, Ling PD
  Title
The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA-LP protein preferentially coactivates EBNA2-mediated  stimulation of latent membrane proteins expressed from the viral divergent promoter.
  Journal
J Virol 79:4492-505 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Saha A, Bamidele A, Murakami M, Robertson ES
  Title
EBNA3C attenuates the function of p53 through interaction with inhibitor of growth family proteins 4 and 5.
  Journal
J Virol 85:2079-88 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Saha A, Halder S, Upadhyay SK, Lu J, Kumar P, Murakami M, Cai Q, Robertson ES
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C facilitates G1-S transition by stabilizing  and enhancing the function of cyclin D1.
  Journal
PLoS Pathog 7:e1001275 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Knight JS, Sharma N, Kalman DE, Robertson ES
  Title
A cyclin-binding motif within the amino-terminal homology domain of EBNA3C binds  cyclin A and modulates cyclin A-dependent kinase activity in Epstein-Barr virus-infected cells.
  Journal
J Virol 78:12857-67 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Knight JS, Robertson ES
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C regulates cyclin A/p27 complexes and enhances cyclin A-dependent kinase activity.
  Journal
J Virol 78:1981-91 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Knight JS, Sharma N, Robertson ES
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus latent antigen 3C can mediate the degradation of the retinoblastoma protein through an SCF cellular ubiquitin ligase.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:18562-6 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Kashuba E, Yurchenko M, Yenamandra SP, Snopok B, Isaguliants M, Szekely L, Klein G
  Title
EBV-encoded EBNA-6 binds and targets MRS18-2 to the nucleus, resulting in the disruption of pRb-E2F1 complexes.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:5489-94 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Young LS, Dawson CW, Eliopoulos AG
  Title
The expression and function of Epstein-Barr virus encoded latent genes.
  Journal
Mol Pathol 53:238-47 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Kuppers R
  Title
The biology of Hodgkin's lymphoma.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 9:15-27 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Pattle SB, Farrell PJ
  Title
The role of Epstein-Barr virus in cancer.
  Journal
Expert Opin Biol Ther 6:1193-205 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Thorley-Lawson DA
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus: exploiting the immune system.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 1:75-82 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Eliopoulos AG, Young LS
  Title
LMP1 structure and signal transduction.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 11:435-44 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Dell G, Gaston K
  Title
Human papillomaviruses and their role in cervical cancer.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 58:1923-42 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
zur Hausen H
  Title
Papillomaviruses causing cancer: evasion from host-cell control in early events in carcinogenesis.
  Journal
J Natl Cancer Inst 92:690-8 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Yugawa T, Kiyono T
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of cervical carcinogenesis by high-risk human papillomaviruses: novel functions of E6 and E7 oncoproteins.
  Journal
Rev Med Virol 19:97-113 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Narisawa-Saito M, Kiyono T
  Title
Basic mechanisms of high-risk human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis: roles  of E6 and E7 proteins.
  Journal
Cancer Sci 98:1505-11 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Motoyama S, Ladines-Llave CA, Luis Villanueva S, Maruo T
  Title
The role of human papilloma virus in the molecular biology of cervical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Kobe J Med Sci 50:9-19 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Moody CA, Laimins LA
  Title
Human papillomavirus oncoproteins: pathways to transformation.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 10:550-60 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
McCance DJ
  Title
Human papillomaviruses and cell signaling.
  Journal
Sci STKE 2005:pe29 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Wade R, Brimer N, Vande Pol S
  Title
Transformation by bovine papillomavirus type 1 E6 requires paxillin.
  Journal
J Virol 82:5962-6 (2008)
Reference
PMID:9374493
  Authors
Berezutskaya E, Bagchi S
  Title
The human papillomavirus E7 oncoprotein functionally interacts with the S4 subunit of the 26 S proteasome.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 272:30135-40 (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Zhang B, Chen W, Roman A
  Title
The E7 proteins of low- and high-risk human papillomaviruses share the ability to target the pRB family member p130 for degradation.
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