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Entry
ko05410                     Pathway                                

Name
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
Description
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance that is characterized by hypertrophy of the left ventricles with histological features of myocyte hypertrophy, myfibrillar disarray, and interstitial fibrosis. HCM is one of the most common inherited cardiac disorders, with a prevalence in young adults of 1 in 500. Hundreds of mutations in the genes that encode protein constituents of the sarcomere have been identified in HCM. These mutations increase the Ca2+ sensitivity of cardiac myofilaments. Increased myofilament Ca2+ sensitivity is expected to increase the ATP utilization by actomyosin at submaximal Ca2+ concentrations, which might cause an imbalance in energy supply and demand in the heart under severe stress. The inefficient use of ATP suggests that an inability to maintain normal ATP levels could be the central abnormality. This theory might be supported by the discovery of the role of a mutant PRKAG2 gene in HCM, which in active form acts as a central sensing mechanism protecting cells from depletion of ATP supplies. The increase in the myfilament Ca2+ sensitivity well account for the diastolic dysfunction of model animals as well as human patients of HCM. It has been widely proposed that left ventricular hypertrophy is not a primary manifestation but develops as compensatory response to sarcomere dysfunction.
Class
Human Diseases; Cardiovascular diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko05410  Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
ko05410

Ortholog table
Disease
H00292  Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM)
H00728  Brugada syndrome (BRS)
H01154  Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome
Orthology
K06480  integrin alpha 1
K06481  integrin alpha 2
K06476  integrin alpha 2B
K06482  integrin alpha 3
K06483  integrin alpha 4
K06484  integrin alpha 5
K06485  integrin alpha 6
K06583  integrin alpha 7
K06584  integrin alpha 8
K06585  integrin alpha 9
K06586  integrin alpha 10
K06587  integrin alpha 11
K06487  integrin alpha V
K05719  integrin beta 1
K06493  integrin beta 3
K06525  integrin beta 4
K06588  integrin beta 5
K06589  integrin beta 6
K06590  integrin beta 7
K06591  integrin beta 8
K12563  delta-sarcoglycan
K12564  gamma-sarcoglycan
K12565  alpha-sarcoglycan
K12566  beta-sarcoglycan
K06265  dystroglycan 1
K07610  desmin
K10366  dystrophin
K05692  actin beta/gamma 1
K12567  titin [EC:2.7.11.1]
K12045  troponin T, cardiac muscle
K05865  troponin C, slow skeletal and cardiac muscles
K12044  troponin I, cardiac muscle
K12314  actin, alpha cardiac muscle
K10373  tropomyosin 1
K10374  tropomyosin 2
K09290  tropomyosin 3
K10375  tropomyosin 4
K12568  myosin-binding protein C, cardiac-type
K12749  myosin light chain 3
K10351  myosin regulatory light chain 2
K12569  emerin
K12641  lamin A/C
K04850  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1C
K04851  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1D
K04853  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1F
K04857  voltage-dependent calcium channel L type alpha-1S
K04862  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-1
K04863  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-2
K04864  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-3
K04865  voltage-dependent calcium channel beta-4
K04858  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-1
K04859  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-2
K04860  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-3
K04861  voltage-dependent calcium channel alpha-2/delta-4
K04866  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-1
K04867  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-2
K04868  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-3
K04869  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-4
K04870  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-5
K04871  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-6
K04872  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-7
K04873  voltage-dependent calcium channel gamma-8
K04962  ryanodine receptor 2
K07198  5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, catalytic alpha subunit [EC:2.7.11.11]
K07199  5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, regulatory beta subunit
K07200  5'-AMP-activated protein kinase, regulatory gamma subunit
K01283  peptidyl-dipeptidase A [EC:3.4.15.1]
K05459  insulin-like growth factor 1
K13375  transforming growth factor beta-1
K13376  transforming growth factor beta-2
K13377  transforming growth factor beta-3
K03156  tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 2
K05405  interleukin 6
Compound
C00002  ATP
C00076  Calcium cation
C01330  Sodium cation
C02135  Angiotensin II
C16010  Endothelin-1
Reference
  Authors
Fatkin D, Graham RM
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of inherited cardiomyopathies.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 82:945-80 (2002)
DOI:10.1152/physrev.00012.2002
Reference
  Authors
Moolman-Smook JC, Mayosi BM, Brink PA, Corfield VA
  Title
Molecular genetics of cardiomyopathy: changing times, shifting paradigms.
  Journal
Cardiovasc J S Afr 14:145-55 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Taylor MR, Carniel E, Mestroni L
  Title
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: clinical features, molecular genetics and molecular genetic testing.
  Journal
Expert Rev Mol Diagn 4:99-113 (2004)
DOI:10.1586/14737159.4.1.99
Reference
  Authors
Marian AJ
  Title
Pathogenesis of diverse clinical and pathological phenotypes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
  Journal
Lancet 355:58-60 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)06187-5
Reference
  Authors
Blair E, Redwood C, Ashrafian H, Oliveira M, Broxholme J, Kerr B, Salmon A, Ostman-Smith I, Watkins H
  Title
Mutations in the gamma(2) subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase cause familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: evidence for the central role of energy compromise in disease pathogenesis.
  Journal
Hum Mol Genet 10:1215-20 (2001)
DOI:10.1093/hmg/10.11.1215
Reference
  Authors
Franz WM, Muller OJ, Katus HA
  Title
Cardiomyopathies: from genetics to the prospect of treatment.
  Journal
Lancet 358:1627-37 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06657-0
Reference
  Authors
Morimoto S
  Title
Sarcomeric proteins and inherited cardiomyopathies.
  Journal
Cardiovasc Res 77:659-66 (2008)
DOI:10.1093/cvr/cvm084
Reference
  Authors
Cambronero F, Marin F, Roldan V, Hernandez-Romero D, Valdes M, Lip GY
  Title
Biomarkers of pathophysiology in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: implications for clinical management and prognosis.
  Journal
Eur Heart J 30:139-51 (2009)
DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehn538
Reference
  Authors
Towbin JA, Bowles NE
  Title
The failing heart.
  Journal
Nature 415:227-33 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/415227a
Reference
  Authors
Sorajja P, Elliott PM, McKenna WJ
  Title
The molecular genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: prognostic implications.
  Journal
Europace 2:4-14 (2000)
DOI:10.1053/eupc.1999.0067
Reference
  Authors
Landstrom AP, Parvatiyar MS, Pinto JR, Marquardt ML, Bos JM, Tester DJ, Ommen SR, Potter JD, Ackerman MJ
  Title
Molecular and functional characterization of novel hypertrophic cardiomyopathy susceptibility mutations in TNNC1-encoded troponin C.
  Journal
J Mol Cell Cardiol 45:281-8 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.yjmcc.2008.05.003

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