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Entry
map00905                    Pathway                                

Name
Brassinosteroid biosynthesis
Description
Brassinosteroids are a group of plant steroid hormones that regulate growth and development. More than fifty naturally occurring brassinosteroids have been identified in a wide range of plant species. The most abundant and widely occurring brassinosteroids are C28 steroids, and among them brassinolide (BL) is the most biologically active. Plants have multiple pathways for biosynthesis of BL, which are derived from the steroid biosynthetic pathway. Two pathways from campestanol to castasterone (CS), C6 oxidation and the late-C6 oxidation pathways, operate in many plants. Another branching pathway, the early-C22 oxidation pathway, was demonstrated using a brassinosteroid-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Recently, a new shortcut pathway from campesterol to 6-deoxotyphasterol was demonstrated by a functional analysis of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases responsible for brassinosteroid biosynthesis. Thus, at least four pathways are involved in the biosynthesis of CS, and CS is further metabolized to BL by lactonization of the B ring.
Class
Metabolism; Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
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Pathway map
Brassinosteroid biosynthesis
map00905

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00371  
Castasterone biosynthesis, campesterol => castasterone [PATH:map00905]
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Reference
  Authors
Koshiba K, Kamiya Y.
  Title
[Atarasii Syokubutuhorumon no Kagaku] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Koudansya saientific:199-138 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Fukuda H, Matida Y, Kamiya Y, Kakimoto T.
  Title
[Shinpan Syokubutuhorumon no Sigunarudentatu] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Syujyunsya:165-186 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Shimada Y, Goda H, Nakamura A, Takatsuto S, Fujioka S, Yoshida S.
  Title
Organ-specific expression of brassinosteroid-biosynthetic genes and distribution of endogenous brassinosteroids in Arabidopsis.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 131:287-97 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Sunghwa C.
  Title
Brassinosteroid biosynthesis and inactivation.
  Journal
Physiologia Plantarum 126:539-548 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Ohnishi T, Szatmari AM, Watanabe B, Fujita S, Bancos S, Koncz C, Lafos M, Shibata K, Yokota T, Sakata K, Szekeres M, Mizutani M
  Title
C-23 hydroxylation by Arabidopsis CYP90C1 and CYP90D1 reveals a novel shortcut in brassinosteroid biosynthesis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 18:3275-88 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Bishop GJ
  Title
Refining the plant steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway.
  Journal
Trends Plant Sci 12:377-80 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Nomura T, Kushiro T, Yokota T, Kamiya Y, Bishop GJ, Yamaguchi S
  Title
The last reaction producing brassinolide is catalyzed by cytochrome P-450s, CYP85A3 in tomato and CYP85A2 in Arabidopsis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:17873-9 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Katsumata T, Hasegawa A, Fujiwara T, Komatsu T, Notomi M, Abe H, Natsume M, Kawaide H
  Title
Arabidopsis CYP85A2 catalyzes lactonization reactions in the biosynthesis of 2-deoxy-7-oxalactone brassinosteroids.
  Journal
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 72:2110-7 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Tanabe S, Ashikari M, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Yano M, Yoshimura A, Kitano H, Matsuoka M, Fujisawa Y, Kato H, Iwasaki Y
  Title
A novel cytochrome P450 is implicated in brassinosteroid biosynthesis via the characterization of a rice dwarf mutant, dwarf11, with reduced seed length.
  Journal
Plant Cell 17:776-90 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Hong Z, Ueguchi-Tanaka M, Umemura K, Uozu S, Fujioka S, Takatsuto S, Yoshida S, Ashikari M, Kitano H, Matsuoka M
  Title
A rice brassinosteroid-deficient mutant, ebisu dwarf (d2), is caused by a loss of function of a new member of cytochrome P450.
  Journal
Plant Cell 15:2900-10 (2003)
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