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Entry
map05016                    Pathway                                

Name
Huntington's disease
Description
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15gene, which results in a long stretch of polyglutamine close to the amino-terminus of the HD protein huntingtin (Htt). Mutant Htt (mHtt) has effects both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, full-length mHtt can interfere with BDNF vesicular transport on microtubules. This mutant protein also may lead to abnormal endocytosis and secretion in neurons, because normal Htt form a complex with the proteins Hip1, clathrin and AP2 that are involved in endocytosis. In addition, mHtt affects Ca2+ signaling by sensitizing InsP3R1 to activation by InsP3, stimulating NMDAR activity, and destabilizing mitochondrial Ca2+ handling. The mHtt translocates to the nucleus, where it forms intranuclear inclusions. Nuclear toxicity is believed to be caused by interference with gene transcription, leading to loss of transcription of neuroprotective molecules such as BDNF. While mHtt binds to p53 and upregulates levels of nuclear p53 as well as p53 transcriptional activity. Augmented p53 mediates mitochondrial dysfunction.
Class
Human Diseases; Neurodegenerative diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map05016  Huntington's disease
map05016

Ortholog table
Module
M00180  RNA polymerase II, eukaryotes [PATH:map05016]
Disease
H00059  Huntington's disease (HD)
Reference
  Authors
Landles C, Bates GP
  Title
Huntingtin and the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Fourth in molecular medicine review series.
  Journal
EMBO Rep 5:958-63 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/sj.embor.7400250
Reference
  Authors
Borrell-Pages M, Zala D, Humbert S, Saudou F
  Title
Huntington's disease: from huntingtin function and dysfunction to therapeutic strategies.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2642-60 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-006-6242-0
Reference
  Authors
Bossy-Wetzel E, Petrilli A, Knott AB
  Title
Mutant huntingtin and mitochondrial dysfunction.
  Journal
Trends Neurosci 31:609-16 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.tins.2008.09.004
Reference
  Authors
Cattaneo E, Zuccato C, Tartari M
  Title
Normal huntingtin function: an alternative approach to Huntington's disease.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 6:919-30 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrn1806
Reference
  Authors
Bezprozvanny I, Hayden MR
  Title
Deranged neuronal calcium signaling and Huntington disease.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 322:1310-7 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2004.08.035
Reference
  Authors
Sawa A, Tomoda T, Bae BI
  Title
Mechanisms of neuronal cell death in Huntington's disease.
  Journal
Cytogenet Genome Res 100:287-95 (2003)
DOI:10.1159/000072864
Reference
  Authors
Ross CA.
  Title
Polyglutamine pathogenesis: emergence of unifying mechanisms for Huntington's disease and related disorders.
  Journal
Neuron 35:819-22 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00872-3
Reference
  Authors
Ross CA
  Title
Huntington's disease: new paths to pathogenesis.
  Journal
Cell 118:4-7 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2004.06.022
Reference
  Authors
Tang TS, Slow E, Lupu V, Stavrovskaya IG, Sugimori M, Llinas R, Kristal BS, Hayden MR, Bezprozvanny I
  Title
Disturbed Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis of medium spiny neurons in Huntington's disease.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2602-7 (2005)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0409402102
Reference
  Authors
Mattson MP.
  Title
Accomplices to neuronal death.
  Journal
Nature 415:377-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/415377a
Reference
  Authors
McGill JK, Beal MF
  Title
PGC-1alpha, a new therapeutic target in Huntington's disease?
  Journal
Cell 127:465-8 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2006.10.023
Reference
  Authors
La Spada AR, Morrison RS
  Title
The power of the dark side: Huntington's disease protein and p53 form a deadly alliance.
  Journal
Neuron 47:1-3 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.06.023
Reference
  Authors
Lesort M, Chun W, Tucholski J, Johnson GV
  Title
Does tissue transglutaminase play a role in Huntington's disease?
  Journal
Neurochem Int 40:37-52 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0197-0186(01)00059-6
Reference
  Authors
Bae BI, Xu H, Igarashi S, Fujimuro M, Agrawal N, Taya Y, Hayward SD, Moran TH, Montell C, Ross CA, Snyder SH, Sawa A
  Title
p53 mediates cellular dysfunction and behavioral abnormalities in Huntington's disease.
  Journal
Neuron 47:29-41 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.06.005
Reference
  Authors
Li SH, Cheng AL, Zhou H, Lam S, Rao M, Li H, Li XJ
  Title
Interaction of Huntington disease protein with transcriptional activator Sp1.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biol 22:1277-87 (2002)
DOI:10.1128/MCB.22.5.1277-1287.2002
KO pathway
ko05016   

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