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Entry
map05220                    Pathway                                

Name
Chronic myeloid leukemia
Description
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (CP), which is characterized by expansion of functionally normal myeloid cells, followed by an accelerated phase (AP) and finally a more aggressive blast phase (BP), with loss of terminal differentiation capacity. On the cellular level, CML is associated with a specific chromosome abnormality, the t(9; 22) reciprocal translocation that forms the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The Ph chromosome is the result of a molecular rearrangement between the c-ABL proto-oncogene on chromosome 9 and the BCR (breakpoint cluster region) gene on chromosome 22.  The BCR/ABL fusion gene encodes p210 BCR/ABL, an oncoprotein, which, unlike the normal p145 c-Abl, has constitutive tyrosine kinase activity and is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. While fusion of c-ABL and BCR is believed to be the primary cause of the chronic phase of CML, progression to blast crisis requires other molecular changes. Common secondary abnormalities include mutations in TP53, RB, and p16/INK4A, or overexpression of genes such as EVI1. Additional chromosome translocations are also observed,such as t(3;21)(q26;q22), which generates AML1-EVI1.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancers
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Chronic myeloid leukemia
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Disease
H00004  
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
Reference
  Authors
Ren R.
  Title
Mechanisms of BCR-ABL in the pathogenesis of chronic myelogenous leukaemia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 5:172-83 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1567
Reference
  Authors
Deininger MW, Goldman JM, Melo JV.
  Title
The molecular biology of chronic myeloid leukemia.
  Journal
Blood 96:3343-56 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Calabretta B, Perrotti D.
  Title
The biology of CML blast crisis.
  Journal
Blood 103:4010-22 (2004)
DOI:10.1182/blood-2003-12-4111
Reference
  Authors
Faderl S, Talpaz M, Estrov Z, O'Brien S, Kurzrock R, Kantarjian HM.
  Title
The biology of chronic myeloid leukemia.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 341:164-72 (1999)
DOI:10.1056/NEJM199907153410306
Reference
  Authors
Mitani K.
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of leukemogenesis by AML1/EVI-1.
  Journal
Oncogene 23:4263-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1207777
Reference
  Authors
Dong M, Blobe GC.
  Title
Role of transforming growth factor-beta in hematologic malignancies.
  Journal
Blood 107:4589-96 (2006)
DOI:10.1182/blood-2005-10-4169
Reference
PMID:9834202
  Authors
Kurokawa M, Mitani K, Imai Y, Ogawa S, Yazaki Y, Hirai H.
  Title
The t(3;21) fusion product, AML1/Evi-1, interacts with Smad3 and blocks transforming growth factor-beta-mediated growth inhibition of myeloid cells.
  Journal
Blood 92:4003-12 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Brusa G, Benvenuti M, Mazzacurati L, Mancini M, Pattacini L, Martinelli G, Barbieri E, Greenberger JS, Baccarani M, Santucci MA.
  Title
p53 loss of function enhances genomic instability and accelerates clonal evolution of murine myeloid progenitors expressing the p(210)BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase.
  Journal
Haematologica 88:622-30 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Baldwin AS.
  Title
Control of oncogenesis and cancer therapy resistance by the transcription factor NF-kappaB.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 107:241-6 (2001)
DOI:10.1172/JCI11991
Reference
  Authors
Shin I, Yakes FM, Rojo F, Shin NY, Bakin AV, Baselga J, Arteaga CL.
  Title
PKB/Akt mediates cell-cycle progression by phosphorylation of p27(Kip1) at threonine 157 and modulation of its cellular localization.
  Journal
Nat Med 8:1145-52 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nm759
Reference
  Authors
Hantschel O, Warsch W, Eckelhart E, Kaupe I, Grebien F, Wagner KU, Superti-Furga G, Sexl V
  Title
BCR-ABL uncouples canonical JAK2-STAT5 signaling in chronic myeloid leukemia.
  Journal
Nat Chem Biol 8:285-93 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nchembio.775
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