KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04360Help
Entry
hsa04360                    Pathway                                

Name
Axon guidance - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Axon guidance represents a key stage in the formation of neuronal network. Axons are guided by a variety of guidance factors, such as netrins, ephrins, Slits, and semaphorins. These guidance cues are read by growth cone receptors, and signal transduction pathways downstream of these receptors converge onto the Rho GTPases to elicit changes in cytoskeletal organization that determine which way the growth cone will turn.
Class
Organismal Systems; Development
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Axon guidance
hsa04360

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00577  
Syndromic X-linked mental retardation with epilepsy or seizures
H00698  
Nemaline myopathy
H00764  
Cri du chat syndrome
H01034  
L1 syndrome
H01202  
Cataract
H01287  
Congenital mirror movements (CMM)
Drug
D10028  
Valategrast hydrochloride (USAN)
D10494  
Vesencumab (USAN/INN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
22854  
NTNG1; netrin G1 [KO:K07522]
84628  
NTNG2; netrin G2 [KO:K16359]
57689  
LRRC4C; leucine rich repeat containing 4C [KO:K07523]
64101  
LRRC4; leucine rich repeat containing 4 [KO:K16351]
9423  
NTN1; netrin 1 [KO:K06843]
4917  
NTN3; netrin 3 [KO:K06844]
59277  
NTN4; netrin 4 [KO:K06845]
1630  
DCC; DCC netrin 1 receptor [KO:K06765]
5335  
PLCG1; phospholipase C gamma 1 [KO:K01116] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5336  
PLCG2; phospholipase C gamma 2 [KO:K05859] [EC:3.1.4.11]
7220  
TRPC1; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 1 [KO:K04964]
7222  
TRPC3; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 3 [KO:K04966]
7223  
TRPC4; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 4 [KO:K04967]
7224  
TRPC5; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 5 [KO:K04968]
7225  
TRPC6; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily C member 6 [KO:K04969]
5530  
PPP3CA; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5532  
PPP3CB; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5533  
PPP3CC; protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5534  
PPP3R1; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K06268]
5535  
PPP3R2; protein phosphatase 3 regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K06268]
4773  
NFATC2; nuclear factor of activated T-cells 2 [KO:K17332]
4775  
NFATC3; nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3 [KO:K17333]
4776  
NFATC4; nuclear factor of activated T-cells 4 [KO:K17334]
5747  
PTK2; protein tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K05725] [EC:2.7.10.2]
2534  
FYN; FYN proto-oncogene, Src family tyrosine kinase [KO:K05703] [EC:2.7.10.2]
6714  
SRC; SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05704] [EC:2.7.10.2]
5879  
RAC1; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1) [KO:K04392]
5880  
RAC2; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2) [KO:K07860]
5881  
RAC3; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) [KO:K07861]
998  
CDC42; cell division cycle 42 [KO:K04393]
3983  
ABLIM1; actin binding LIM protein 1 [KO:K07520]
22885  
ABLIM3; actin binding LIM protein family member 3 [KO:K07520]
84448  
ABLIM2; actin binding LIM protein family member 2 [KO:K07520]
4690  
NCK1; NCK adaptor protein 1 [KO:K07365]
5058  
PAK1; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 1 [KO:K04409] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5062  
PAK2; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 2 [KO:K04410] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5063  
PAK3; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 3 [KO:K05733] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10298  
PAK4; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 4 [KO:K05734] [EC:2.7.11.1]
56924  
PAK6; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 6 [KO:K05735] [EC:2.7.11.1]
BUB1B-PAK6; BUB1B-PAK6 readthrough [KO:K05735] [EC:2.7.11.1]
57144  
PAK5; p21 (RAC1) activated kinase 5 [KO:K05736] [EC:2.7.11.1]
387  
RHOA; ras homolog family member A [KO:K04513]
6093  
ROCK1; Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 [KO:K04514] [EC:2.7.11.1]
9475  
ROCK2; Rho associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2 [KO:K17388] [EC:2.7.11.1]
90249  
UNC5A; unc-5 netrin receptor A [KO:K07521]
219699  
UNC5B; unc-5 netrin receptor B [KO:K07521]
8633  
UNC5C; unc-5 netrin receptor C [KO:K07521]
137970  
UNC5D; unc-5 netrin receptor D [KO:K07521]
5781  
PTPN11; protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 [KO:K07293] [EC:3.1.3.48]
1942  
EFNA1; ephrin A1 [KO:K05462]
1943  
EFNA2; ephrin A2 [KO:K05462]
1944  
EFNA3; ephrin A3 [KO:K05462]
1945  
EFNA4; ephrin A4 [KO:K05462]
1946  
EFNA5; ephrin A5 [KO:K05462]
1947  
EFNB1; ephrin B1 [KO:K05463]
1948  
EFNB2; ephrin B2 [KO:K05463]
1949  
EFNB3; ephrin B3 [KO:K05463]
2041  
EPHA1; EPH receptor A1 [KO:K05102] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1969  
EPHA2; EPH receptor A2 [KO:K05103] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2042  
EPHA3; EPH receptor A3 [KO:K05104] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2043  
EPHA4; EPH receptor A4 [KO:K05105] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2044  
EPHA5; EPH receptor A5 [KO:K05106] [EC:2.7.10.1]
285220  
EPHA6; EPH receptor A6 [KO:K05107] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2045  
EPHA7; EPH receptor A7 [KO:K05108] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2046  
EPHA8; EPH receptor A8 [KO:K05109] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2047  
EPHB1; EPH receptor B1 [KO:K05110] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2048  
EPHB2; EPH receptor B2 [KO:K05111] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2049  
EPHB3; EPH receptor B3 [KO:K05112] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2050  
EPHB4; EPH receptor B4 [KO:K05113] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2051  
EPHB6; EPH receptor B6 [KO:K05114] [EC:2.7.10.1]
25  
ABL1; ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K06619] [EC:2.7.10.2]
55740  
ENAH; enabled homolog (Drosophila) [KO:K05746]
5921  
RASA1; RAS p21 protein activator 1 [KO:K04352]
25791  
NGEF; neuronal guanine nucleotide exchange factor [KO:K07525]
3265  
HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  
KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  
NRAS; neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
5594  
MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  
MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
8440  
NCK2; NCK adaptor protein 2 [KO:K19862]
5998  
RGS3; regulator of G-protein signaling 3 [KO:K07524]
6387  
CXCL12; C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 [KO:K10031]
7852  
CXCR4; C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 [KO:K04189]
2770  
GNAI1; G protein subunit alpha i1 [KO:K04630]
2773  
GNAI3; G protein subunit alpha i3 [KO:K04630]
2771  
GNAI2; G protein subunit alpha i2 [KO:K04630]
6585  
SLIT1; slit guidance ligand 1 [KO:K06838]
9353  
SLIT2; slit guidance ligand 2 [KO:K06839]
6586  
SLIT3; slit guidance ligand 3 [KO:K06850]
6091  
ROBO1; roundabout guidance receptor 1 [KO:K06753]
6092  
ROBO2; roundabout guidance receptor 2 [KO:K06754]
64221  
ROBO3; roundabout guidance receptor 3 [KO:K06755]
23380  
SRGAP2; SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 [KO:K07526]
57522  
SRGAP1; SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 1 [KO:K07526]
9901  
SRGAP3; SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 3 [KO:K07526]
10371  
SEMA3A; semaphorin 3A [KO:K06840]
7869  
SEMA3B; semaphorin 3B [KO:K06840]
10512  
SEMA3C; semaphorin 3C [KO:K06840]
223117  
SEMA3D; semaphorin 3D [KO:K06840]
9723  
SEMA3E; semaphorin 3E [KO:K06840]
6405  
SEMA3F; semaphorin 3F [KO:K06840]
56920  
SEMA3G; semaphorin 3G [KO:K06840]
5362  
PLXNA2; plexin A2 [KO:K06820]
55558  
PLXNA3; plexin A3 [KO:K06820]
5361  
PLXNA1; plexin A1 [KO:K06820]
91584  
PLXNA4; plexin A4 [KO:K06820]
8829  
NRP1; neuropilin 1 [KO:K06724]
3897  
L1CAM; L1 cell adhesion molecule [KO:K06550]
3984  
LIMK1; LIM domain kinase 1 [KO:K05743] [EC:2.7.11.1]
3985  
LIMK2; LIM domain kinase 2 [KO:K05744] [EC:2.7.11.1]
1072  
CFL1; cofilin 1 [KO:K05765]
1073  
CFL2; cofilin 2 [KO:K05765]
29984  
RHOD; ras homolog family member D [KO:K07530]
27289  
RND1; Rho family GTPase 1 [KO:K07531]
2242  
FES; FES proto-oncogene, tyrosine kinase [KO:K07527] [EC:2.7.10.2]
56896  
DPYSL5; dihydropyrimidinase like 5 [KO:K07529]
1808  
DPYSL2; dihydropyrimidinase like 2 [KO:K07528]
1020  
CDK5; cyclin dependent kinase 5 [KO:K02090] [EC:2.7.11.22]
2932  
GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
10505  
SEMA4F; ssemaphorin 4F [KO:K06521]
10507  
SEMA4D; semaphorin 4D [KO:K06521]
10509  
SEMA4B; semaphorin 4B [KO:K06521]
54910  
SEMA4C; semaphorin 4C [KO:K06521]
57715  
SEMA4G; semaphorin 4G [KO:K06521]
64218  
SEMA4A; semaphorin 4A [KO:K06521]
9037  
SEMA5A; semaphorin 5A [KO:K06841]
54437  
SEMA5B; semaphorin 5B [KO:K06841]
57556  
SEMA6A; semaphorin 6A [KO:K06842]
10501  
SEMA6B; semaphorin 6B [KO:K06842]
10500  
SEMA6C; semaphorin 6C [KO:K06842]
80031  
SEMA6D; semaphorin 6D [KO:K06842]
5364  
PLXNB1; plexin B1 [KO:K06821]
23654  
PLXNB2; plexin B2 [KO:K06821]
5365  
PLXNB3; plexin B3 [KO:K06821]
4233  
MET; MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05099] [EC:2.7.10.1]
23365  
ARHGEF12; Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 12 [KO:K07532]
5894  
RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
6237  
RRAS; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog [KO:K07829]
8482  
SEMA7A; semaphorin 7A (John Milton Hagen blood group) [KO:K06529]
10154  
PLXNC1; plexin C1 [KO:K06572]
3688  
ITGB1; integrin subunit beta 1 [KO:K05719]
6469  
SHH; sonic hedgehog [KO:K11988]
5727  
PTCH1; patched 1 [KO:K06225]
6608  
SMO; smoothened, frizzled class receptor [KO:K06226]
5578  
PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
3611  
ILK; integrin linked kinase [KO:K06272] [EC:2.7.11.1]
91653  
BOC; BOC cell adhesion associated, oncogene regulated [KO:K20020]
7474  
WNT5A; Wnt family member 5A [KO:K00444]
81029  
WNT5B; Wnt family member 5B [KO:K00444]
7976  
FZD3; frizzled class receptor 3 [KO:K02329]
6259  
RYK; receptor-like tyrosine kinase [KO:K05128] [EC:2.7.10.1]
815  
CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
817  
CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
816  
CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II beta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
818  
CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase II gamma [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
54361  
WNT4; Wnt family member 4 [KO:K00408]
5290  
PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  
PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  
PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5294  
PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  
PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
23533  
PIK3R5; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 [KO:K02649]
5296  
PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  
PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
5163  
PDK1; pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 [KO:K12077] [EC:2.7.11.2]
2151  
F2RL2; coagulation factor II thrombin receptor like 2 [KO:K04235]
50855  
PARD6A; par-6 family cell polarity regulator alpha [KO:K06093]
84552  
PARD6G; par-6 family cell polarity regulator gamma [KO:K06093]
84612  
PARD6B; par-6 family cell polarity regulator beta [KO:K06093]
54434  
SSH1; slingshot protein phosphatase 1 [KO:K05766] [EC:3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
54961  
SSH3; slingshot protein phosphatase 3 [KO:K05766] [EC:3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
85464  
SSH2; slingshot protein phosphatase 2 [KO:K05766] [EC:3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
655  
BMP7; bone morphogenetic protein 7 [KO:K16621]
151449  
GDF7; growth differentiation factor 7 [KO:K20013]
659  
BMPR2; bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 [KO:K04671] [EC:2.7.11.30]
658  
BMPR1B; bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 1B [KO:K13578] [EC:2.7.11.30]
Compound
C00076  
Calcium cation
Reference
  Authors
Guan KL, Rao Y.
  Title
Signalling mechanisms mediating neuronal responses to guidance cues.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 4:941-56 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Govek EE, Newey SE, Van Aelst L.
  Title
The role of the Rho GTPases in neuronal development.
  Journal
Genes Dev 19:1-49 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Huber AB, Kolodkin AL, Ginty DD, Cloutier JF.
  Title
Signaling at the growth cone: ligand-receptor complexes and the control of axon growth and guidance.
  Journal
Annu Rev Neurosci 26:509-63 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Negishi M, Oinuma I, Katoh H.
  Title
Plexins: axon guidance and signal transduction.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 62:1363-71 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Huot J.
  Title
Ephrin signaling in axon guidance.
  Journal
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 28:813-8 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Patel BN, Van Vactor DL.
  Title
Axon guidance: the cytoplasmic tail.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 14:221-9 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Yu TW, Bargmann CI.
  Title
Dynamic regulation of axon guidance.
  Journal
Nat Neurosci 4 Suppl:1169-76 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Dickson BJ.
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of axon guidance.
  Journal
Science 298:1959-64 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Barallobre MJ, Pascual M, Del Rio JA, Soriano E.
  Title
The Netrin family of guidance factors: emphasis on Netrin-1 signalling.
  Journal
Brain Res Brain Res Rev 49:22-47 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Sabatier C, Plump AS, Le Ma, Brose K, Tamada A, Murakami F, Lee EY, Tessier-Lavigne M.
  Title
The divergent Robo family protein rig-1/Robo3 is a negative regulator of slit responsiveness required for midline crossing by commissural axons.
  Journal
Cell 117:157-69 (2004)
KO pathway
 

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