KEGG   PATHWAY: cmp00906Help
Entry
cmp00906                    Pathway                                

Name
Carotenoid biosynthesis - Chamaesiphon minutus
Class
Metabolism; Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Carotenoid biosynthesis
cmp00906

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Organism
Chamaesiphon minutus [GN:cmp]
Gene
phytoene/squalene synthetase; K02291 phytoene synthase [EC:2.5.1.32] [KO:K02291] [EC:2.5.1.32]
phytoene desaturase; K02293 15-cis-phytoene desaturase [EC:1.3.5.5] [KO:K02293] [EC:1.3.5.5]
carotene 7; K00514 zeta-carotene desaturase [EC:1.3.5.6] [KO:K00514] [EC:1.3.5.6]
carotene isomerase; K09835 prolycopene isomerase [EC:5.2.1.13] [KO:K09835] [EC:5.2.1.13]
flavin-dependent dehydrogenase; K14606 lycopene cyclase CruP [EC:5.5.1.19] [KO:K14606] [EC:5.5.1.19]
fatty acid desaturase; K09836 beta-carotene ketolase (CrtW type) [KO:K09836]
fatty acid desaturase; K09836 beta-carotene ketolase (CrtW type) [KO:K09836]
fatty acid desaturase; K09836 beta-carotene ketolase (CrtW type) [KO:K09836]
fatty acid desaturase; K02294 beta-carotene hydroxylase [EC:1.14.13.-] [KO:K02294] [EC:1.14.13.-]
Compound
C00353  
Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
C00448  
trans,trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C02094  
beta-Carotene
C03427  
Prephytoene diphosphate
C03428  
Presqualene diphosphate
C05413  
all-trans-Phytoene
C05414  
all-trans-Phytofluene
C05421  
15-cis-Phytoene
C05430  
all-trans-zeta-Carotene
C05431  
all-trans-Neurosporene
C05432  
Lycopene
C05433  
alpha-Carotene
C05434  
beta-Zeacarotene
C05435  
gamma-Carotene
C06082  
Abscisate
C06098  
Zeaxanthin
C08579  
Antheraxanthin
C08580  
Astaxanthin
C08583  
Canthaxanthin
C08584  
Capsanthin
C08585  
Capsorubin
C08586  
delta-Carotene
C08590  
Zeinoxanthin
C08591  
beta-Cryptoxanthin
C08592  
Echinenone
C08601  
Lutein
C08606  
Neoxanthin
C08607  
Neurosporaxanthin
C08613  
Torulene
C08614  
Violaxanthin
C09190  
Strigol
C09707  
Phaseic acid
C13431  
9'-cis-Neoxanthin
C13433  
9-cis-Violaxanthin
C13453  
Xanthoxin
C13454  
Xanthoxic acid
C13455  
Abscisic aldehyde
C13456  
Abscisic alcohol
C15514  
8'-Hydroxyabscisate
C15857  
9,9'-dicis-zeta-Carotene
C15858  
7,9,7',9'-tetracis-Lycopene
C15859  
1'-Hydroxy-gamma-carotene
C15860  
1'-Hydroxytorulene
C15861  
1'-Hydroxy-gamma-carotene glucoside
C15864  
1'-Hydroxy-gamma-carotene glucoside ester
C15867  
3,4-Dehydrolycopene
C15874  
3,4-Dehydrorhodopin
C15877  
Anhydrorhodovibrin
C15878  
Rhodovibrin
C15879  
Hydroxyspirilloxanthin
C15881  
Spirilloxanthin
C15884  
2-Ketospirilloxanthin
C15885  
2,2'-Diketospirilloxanthin
C15886  
3,4-Dihydroanhydrorhodovibrin
C15887  
3',4'-Dihydrorhodovibrin
C15888  
3,4,3',4'-Tetrahydrospirilloxanthin
C15892  
Chloroxanthin
C15895  
3,4-Dihydrospheroidene
C15898  
Demethylspheroidene
C15900  
Spheroidene
C15902  
Hydroxyspheroidene
C15903  
Spheroidenone
C15905  
Hydroxyspheroidenone
C15908  
Chlorobactene
C15911  
Hydroxychlorobactene
C15914  
Hydroxychlorobactene glucoside
C15917  
Hydroxychlorobactene glucoside ester
C15935  
(2'S)-Deoxymyxol 2'-(2,4-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucoside)
C15937  
(3R,2'S)-Myxol 2'-(2,4-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucoside)
C15940  
(2'S)-Deoxymyxol 2'-alpha-L-fucoside
C15941  
(3R,2'S)-Myxol 2'-alpha-L-fucoside
C15942  
(3S,2'S)-4-Ketomyxol 2'-alpha-L-fucoside
C15943  
Isorenieratene
C15965  
3'-Hydroxyechinenone
C15966  
3-Hydroxyechinenone
C15967  
Phoenicoxanthin
C15968  
Adonixanthin
C15969  
Zeaxanthin diglucoside
C15970  
Abscisic acid glucose ester
C15971  
Dihydrophaseic acid
C15981  
alpha-Cryptoxanthin
C15982  
Thermocryptoxanthin
C15983  
Thermozeaxanthin
C15984  
Thermobiszeaxanthin
C16144  
4,4'-Diapophytoene
C16145  
4,4'-Diaponeurosporene
C16146  
4,4'-Diaponeurosporenic acid
C16147  
Glycosyl-4,4'-diaponeurosporenoate
C16148  
Staphyloxanthin
C16270  
Rhodopinal
C16271  
Rhodopinal glucoside
C16274  
(2S,2'S)-Oscillol
C16275  
(2S,2'S)-Oscillol 2,2'-di(alpha-L-fucoside)
C16276  
epsilon-Carotene
C16277  
R.g.-Keto I
C16278  
R.g.-Keto III
C16279  
Thiothece-474
C16280  
Okenone
C16282  
Caloxanthin
C16284  
Nostoxanthin
C16291  
7,8-Dihydro-beta-carotene
C16340  
beta-Isorenieratene
C16486  
Astaxanthin diester
C18036  
Strigolactone ABC-rings
C18037  
5-Deoxystrigol
C19759  
7,9,9'-tricis-Neurosporene
C19764  
9,15,9'-tricis-zeta-Carotene
C19765  
15,9'-dicis-Phytofluene
C19795  
1-Hydroxy-1,2-dihydrolycopene
C19797  
4,4'-Diapolycopene
C19798  
4,4'-Diapolycopenedial
C19892  
4'-Apo-beta,psi-caroten-4'-al
C20484  
9-cis-beta-Carotene
C20692  
9-cis-10'-Apo-beta-carotenal
C20693  
Carlactone
Reference
  Authors
Takaichi S, Mimuro M, Tomita Y.
  Title
[Karotenoido-sono Tayousei to Seirikattsei] (In Japanese)
  Journal
SHOKABO:109-156 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Fukuda H, Matida Y, Kamiya Y, Kakimoto T.
  Title
[Shinpan Syokubutuhorumon no Sigunarudentatu] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Syujyunsya:165-186 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Takaichi S.
  Title
Distribution and biosynthesis of carotenoids in plants and photosynthetic bacteria.
  Journal
Foods and Food Ingredients Journal of Japan 212-7:524-531 (2007)
Reference
PMID:11804826 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Seo M, Koshiba T.
  Title
Complex regulation of ABA biosynthesis in plants.
  Journal
Trends Plant Sci 7:41-8 (2002)
Reference
PMID:17085635 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Cunningham FX Jr, Lee H, Gantt E.
  Title
Carotenoid biosynthesis in the primitive red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae.
  Journal
Eukaryot Cell 6:533-45 (2007)
Reference
PMID:9914519 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Bartley GE, Scolnik PA, Beyer P.
  Title
Two Arabidopsis thaliana carotene desaturases, phytoene desaturase and zeta-carotene desaturase, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyze a poly-cis pathway to yield pro-lycopene.
  Journal
Eur J Biochem 259:396-403 (1999)
Reference
PMID:11884677 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Park H, Kreunen SS, Cuttriss AJ, DellaPenna D, Pogson BJ.
  Title
Identification of the carotenoid isomerase provides insight into carotenoid biosynthesis, prolamellar body formation, and photomorphogenesis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 14:321-32 (2002)
Reference
PMID:15557094 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Isaacson T, Ohad I, Beyer P, Hirschberg J.
  Title
Analysis in vitro of the enzyme CRTISO establishes a poly-cis-carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in plants.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 136:4246-55 (2004)
Reference
PMID:12782726 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Tian L, Magallanes-Lundback M, Musetti V, DellaPenna D.
  Title
Functional analysis of beta- and epsilon-ring carotenoid hydroxylases in Arabidopsis.
  Journal
Plant Cell 15:1320-32 (2003)
Reference
PMID:14709673 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Tian L, Musetti V, Kim J, Magallanes-Lundback M, DellaPenna D.
  Title
The Arabidopsis LUT1 locus encodes a member of the cytochrome p450 family that is required for carotenoid epsilon-ring hydroxylation activity.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101:402-7 (2004)
Reference
PMID:7920703 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Bouvier F, Hugueney P, d'Harlingue A, Kuntz M, Camara B.
  Title
Xanthophyll biosynthesis in chromoplasts: isolation and molecular cloning of an enzyme catalyzing the conversion of 5,6-epoxycarotenoid into ketocarotenoid.
  Journal
Plant J 6:45-54 (1994)
Reference
PMID:9159947 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Schwartz SH, Leon-Kloosterziel KM, Koornneef M, Zeevaart JA.
  Title
Biochemical characterization of the aba2 and aba3 mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 114:161-6 (1997)
Reference
PMID:12114582 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Xu ZJ, Nakajima M, Suzuki Y, Yamaguchi I.
  Title
Cloning and characterization of the abscisic acid-specific glucosyltransferase gene from adzuki bean seedlings.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 129:1285-95 (2002)
Reference
PMID:9808729 (Plant-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Krochko JE, Abrams GD, Loewen MK, Abrams SR, Cutler AJ.
  Title
(+)-Abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase is a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase
  Journal
Plant Physiol 118:849-60 (1998)
Reference
PMID:10851005 (Purple bacteria-canthaxanthin,spirilloxanthin pathway)
  Authors
Hannibal L, Lorquin J, D'Ortoli NA, Garcia N, Chaintreuil C, Masson-Boivin C, Dreyfus B, Giraud E.
  Title
Isolation and characterization of canthaxanthin biosynthesis genes from the photosynthetic bacterium Bradyrhizobium sp. strain ORS278.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 182:3850-3 (2000)
Reference
PMID:12664193 (Purple bacteria-Spheroidene,spirilloxanthin pathway)
  Authors
Pinta V, Ouchane S, Picaud M, Takaichi S, Astier C, Reiss-Husson F.
  Title
Characterization of unusual hydroxy- and ketocarotenoids in Rubrivivax gelatinosus: involvement of enzyme CrtF or CrtA.
  Journal
Arch Microbiol 179:354-62 (2003)
Reference
PMID:7721699 (Purple bacteria-Spheroidene pathway)
  Authors
Lang HP, Cogdell RJ, Takaichi S, Hunter CN.
  Title
Complete DNA sequence, specific Tn5 insertion map, and gene assignment of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 177:2064-73 (1995)
Reference
PMID:9636041 (Purple bacteria-Unusual spirilloxanthin pathway)
  Authors
Komori M, Ghosh R, Takaichi S, Hu Y, Mizoguchi T, Koyama Y, Kuki M.
  Title
A null lesion in the rhodopin 3,4-desaturase of Rhodospirillum rubrum unmasks a cryptic branch of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway.
  Journal
Biochemistry 37:8987-94 (1998)
Reference
(Purple bacteria-Spirilloxanthin pathway)
  Authors
  Title
  Journal
Reference
PMID:14044829 (Purple bacteria-Okenone )
  Authors
SCHMIDT K, LIAAENJENSEN S, SCHLEGEL HG.
  Title
[CAROTENOIDS IN THIORHODACEAE. I. OKENONEAS THE PRINCIPAL CAROTENOID IN CHROMATIUM OKENII PERTY.]
  Journal
Arch Mikrobiol 46:117-26 (1963)
Reference
PMID:4932469 (Purple bacteria-Rhodopinal )
  Authors
Schmidt K.
  Title
Carotenoids of purple nonsulfur bacteria. Composition and biosynthesis of the carotenoids of some strains of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila, Rhodospirillum tenue, and Rhodocyclus purpureus.
  Journal
Arch Mikrobiol 77:231-8 (1971)
Reference
PMID:2254247 (Erwinia uredovora-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Misawa N, Nakagawa M, Kobayashi K, Yamano S, Izawa Y, Nakamura K, Harashima K.
  Title
Elucidation of the Erwinia uredovora carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by functional analysis of gene products expressed in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 172:6704-12 (1990)
Reference
PMID:7588751 (Myxococcus xanthus-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Botella JA, Murillo FJ, Ruiz-Vazquez R.
  Title
A cluster of structural and regulatory genes for light-induced carotenogenesis in Myxococcus xanthus.
  Journal
Eur J Biochem 233:238-48 (1995)
Reference
PMID:7592436 (Marine bacteria-Astaxanthin pathway)
  Authors
Misawa N, Satomi Y, Kondo K, Yokoyama A, Kajiwara S, Saito T, Ohtani T, Miki W.
  Title
Structure and functional analysis of a marine bacterial carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster and astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway proposed at the gene level.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 177:6575-84 (1995)
Reference
PMID:16020541 (Heriobacteria-Diapocarotene pathway)
  Authors
Pelz A, Wieland KP, Putzbach K, Hentschel P, Albert K, Gotz F.
  Title
Structure and biosynthesis of staphyloxanthin from Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:32493-8 (2005)
Reference
PMID:8002598 (Heriobacteria-Diapocarotene pathway)
  Authors
Wieland B, Feil C, Gloria-Maercker E, Thumm G, Lechner M, Bravo JM, Poralla K, Gotz F.
  Title
Genetic and biochemical analyses of the biosynthesis of the yellow carotenoid 4,4'-diaponeurosporene of Staphylococcus aureus.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 176:7719-26 (1994)
Reference
PMID:10395965 (Streptomyces griseus-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Krugel H, Krubasik P, Weber K, Saluz HP, Sandmann G.
  Title
Functional analysis of genes from Streptomyces griseus involved in the synthesis of isorenieratene, a carotenoid with aromatic end groups, revealed a novel type of carotenoid desaturase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1439:57-64 (1999)
Reference
PMID:11479383 (Cyanobacteria-Myxol pathway)
  Authors
Takaichi S, Maoka T, Masamoto K.
  Title
Myxoxanthophyll in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is myxol 2'-dimethyl-fucoside, (3R,2'S)-myxol 2'-(2,4-di-O-methyl-alpha-L-fucoside), not rhamnoside.
  Journal
Plant Cell Physiol 42:756-62 (2001)
Reference
PMID:15695449 (Cyanobacteria-Myxol pathway)
  Authors
Takaichi S, Mochimaru M, Maoka T, Katoh H.
  Title
Myxol and 4-ketomyxol 2'-fucosides, not rhamnosides, from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Nostoc punctiforme PCC 73102, and proposal for the biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids.
  Journal
Plant Cell Physiol 46:497-504 (2005)
Reference
PMID:9092504 (Cyanobacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Fernandez-Gonzalez B, Sandmann G, Vioque A.
  Title
A new type of asymmetrically acting beta-carotene ketolase is required for the synthesis of echinenone in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 272:9728-33 (1997)
Reference
PMID:16242129 (Cyanobacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Mochimaru M, Masukawa H, Takaichi S.
  Title
The cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 has two distinct beta-carotene ketolases: CrtO for echinenone and CrtW for ketomyxol synthesis.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 579:6111-4 (2005)
Reference
PMID:7919981 (Cyanobacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Cunningham FX Jr, Sun Z, Chamovitz D, Hirschberg J, Gantt E.
  Title
Molecular structure and enzymatic function of lycopene cyclase from the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp strain PCC7942.
  Journal
Plant Cell 6:1107-21 (1994)
Reference
PMID:15811329 (Cyanobacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Tsuchiya T, Takaichi S, Misawa N, Maoka T, Miyashita H, Mimuro M.
  Title
The cyanobacterium Gloeobacter violaceus PCC 7421 uses bacterial-type phytoene desaturase in carotenoid biosynthesis.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 579:2125-9 (2005)
Reference
PMID:15115301 (Green sulfer bacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Hirabayashi H, Ishii T, Takaichi S, Inoue K, Uehara K.
  Title
The role of carotenoids in the photoadaptation of the brown-colored sulfur bacterium Chlorobium phaeobacteroides.
  Journal
Photochem Photobiol 79:280-5 (2004)
Reference
PMID:16923888 (Green sulfer bacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Maresca JA, Bryant DA.
  Title
Two genes encoding new carotenoid-modifying enzymes in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:6217-23 (2006)
Reference
PMID:15292122 (Green sulfer bacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Maresca JA, Yunker CE, Jones AD, Bryant DA.
  Title
Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 186:5210-20 (2004)
Reference
PMID:9297463 (Green sulfer bacteria-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Takaichi S, Wang ZY, Umetsu M, Nozawa T, Shimada K, Madigan MT.
  Title
New carotenoids from the thermophilic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum: 1',2'-dihydro-gamma-carotene, 1',2'-dihydrochlorobactene, and OH-chlorobactene glucoside ester, and the carotenoid composition of different strains.
  Journal
Arch Microbiol 168:270-6 (1997)
Reference
PMID:8661926 (Thermophilic bacteria-Thermocryptoxanthins)
  Authors
Yokoyama A, Shizuri Y, Hoshino T, Sandmann G.
  Title
Thermocryptoxanthins: novel intermediates in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of Thermus thermophilus
  Journal
Arch Microbiol 165:342-5 (1996)
Reference
(Sulfolobus solfataricus-Carotenoid pathway)
  Authors
Hemmi H, Ikejiri S, Nakayama T, Nishio T.
  Title
Fusion-type lycopene ?? cyclase from a thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus.
  Journal
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 305(3):586-591 (2003)
KO pathway
 

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