KEGG   PATHWAY: dre04140Help
Entry
dre04140                    Pathway                                

Name
Autophagy - animal - Danio rerio (zebrafish)
Description
Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. Autophagy is regulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation and ER stress. Constitutive level of autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis and maintains quality control of essential cellular components.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Autophagy - animal
dre04140

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BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Danio rerio (zebrafish) [GN:dre]
Gene
30262  
ins; insulin preproprotein [KO:K04526]
566735  
insb; preproinsulin b precursor [KO:K04526]
245701  
igf1ra; insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor precursor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
245702  
igf1rb; insulin-like growth factor 1b receptor precursor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
559281  
irs1; insulin receptor substrate 1 [KO:K16172]
393285  
irs2a; insulin receptor substrate 2 [KO:K07187]
572001  
irs2b; insulin receptor substrate 2 [KO:K07187]
irs4a; insulin receptor substrate 4 [KO:K07187]
794462  
LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: insulin receptor substrate 2-B-like [KO:K07187]
394174  
pik3cd; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
561737  
pik3ca; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
pik3cb; phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
404211  
pik3r2; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit beta [KO:K02649]
pik3r3b; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma [KO:K02649]
557176  
pik3r1; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit alpha [KO:K02649]
403000  
pdpk1b; 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 [KO:K06276] [EC:2.7.11.1]
403146  
akt2l; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
560549  
akt3a; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
378972  
akt2; RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
akt3b; RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
akt1; RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
368415  
ptenb; phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate 3-phosphatase and dual-specificity protein phosphatase PTEN [KO:K01110] [EC:3.1.3.67 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
794088  
ptena; phosphatase and tensin homolog A [KO:K01110] [EC:3.1.3.67 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
553656  
hrasb; -Ha-ras Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog b [KO:K02833]
550286  
hrasa; GTPase HRas [KO:K02833]
445289  
kras; GTPase KRas [KO:K07827]
393228  
zgc:55558; uncharacterized protein LOC393228 [KO:K07827]
ras-like protein isoform X1 [KO:K07827]
30380  
nras; GTPase NRas precursor [KO:K07828]
si:ch73-116o1.2; ras-related protein M-Ras [KO:K07831]
mras; ras-related protein M-Ras [KO:K07831]
449660  
rras; ras-related protein R-Ras [KO:K07830]
550513  
rras2; ras-related protein R-Ras2 [KO:K07830]
30716  
raf1a; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
557109  
raf1b; RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
406728  
map2k1; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
563181  
map2k2a; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
map2k2b; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
360144  
mapk1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
399480  
mapk3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
393202  
hif1ab; hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha [KO:K08268]
378866  
ddit4; DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 protein [KO:K08270]
567524  
tsc2; tuberin [KO:K07207]
337167  
tsc1a; hamartin [KO:K07206]
tsc1b; hamartin [KO:K07206]
336116  
bnip3; BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 [KO:K15464]
402792  
zgc:73226; Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B 19kD interaction protein XR [KO:K15464]
568155  
bnip4; BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19kDa interacting protein 3b [KO:K15464]
393702  
rheb; GTP-binding protein Rheb [KO:K07208]
767781  
rhebl1; GTP-binding protein Rheb-like [KO:K07208]
560455  
rptor; regulatory-associated protein of mTOR isoform X1 [KO:K07204]
768177  
deptor; DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein [KO:K20402]
324254  
mtor; serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [KO:K07203] [EC:2.7.11.1]
566559  
akt1s1; proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1 [KO:K16184]
792689  
mlst8; target of rapamycin complex subunit lst8 [KO:K08266]
562242  
rps6kb1a; ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1-like [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
406349  
rps6kb1b; ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
406843  
igbp1; immunoglobulin-binding protein 1 [KO:K17606]
393885  
zgc:56064; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
406582  
ppp2cb; serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A catalytic subunit beta isoform [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
550585  
ppp2ca; protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
558848  
ulk1b; serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1 isoform X1 [KO:K21357] [EC:2.7.11.1]
ulk1a; unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1a [KO:K21357] [EC:2.7.11.1]
ulk2; serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK2 [KO:K08269] [EC:2.7.11.1]
393405  
atg13; autophagy-related protein 13 [KO:K08331]
567680  
atg101; autophagy-related protein 101 [KO:K19730]
rb1cc1; RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1 [KO:K17589]
si:ch73-45o6.2; autophagy-related protein 2 homolog A isoform X1 [KO:K17906]
WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1-like [KO:K17908]
393362  
wipi1; WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 [KO:K17908]
437002  
wipi2; WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 2 [KO:K17908]
atg9a; autophagy-related protein 9A [KO:K17907]
791223  
atg9b; autophagy-related protein 9B [KO:K17907]
568453  
supt20; transcription factor SPT20 homolog isoform X1 [KO:K21245]
325358  
rraga; ras-related GTP-binding protein A [KO:K16185]
rragcb; uncharacterized protein LOC100000325 [KO:K16186]
573492  
rragca; ras-related GTP-binding protein C [KO:K16186]
570568  
rragd; ras-related GTP-binding protein D [KO:K16186]
550537  
stk11; serine/threonine-protein kinase STK11 [KO:K07298] [EC:2.7.11.1]
572074  
prkaa2; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-2 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
prkaa1; 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha-1 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
393998  
prkacba; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
445076  
prkacab; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
563147  
prkacbb; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
564064  
prkacaa; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit beta isoform X1 [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
334571  
prkcda; protein kinase C delta type [KO:K06068] [EC:2.7.11.13]
prkcdb; protein kinase C delta type [KO:K06068] [EC:2.7.11.13]
569698  
mapk10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 isoform 2 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
562720  
mapk8a; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
65236  
mapk8b; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
mapk9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
bcl2b; apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 [KO:K02161]
570772  
bcl2a; Bcl2 [KO:K02161]
114401  
bcl2l1; bcl-2-like protein 1 [KO:K04570]
58100  
badb; BCL2-antagonist of cell death b isoform 1 [KO:K02158]
393846  
becn1; beclin-1 [KO:K08334]
436886  
nrbf2b; nuclear receptor-binding factor 2 [KO:K21246]
564088  
pik3r4; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 4 isoform X1 [KO:K08333] [EC:2.7.11.1]
548346  
pik3c3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 [KO:K00914] [EC:2.7.1.137]
407686  
zgc:113944; beclin 1-associated autophagy-related key regulator [KO:K17889]
ambra1a; activating molecule in BECN1-regulated autophagy protein 1 [KO:K17985]
559106  
ambra1b; autophagy/beclin-1 regulator 1b [KO:K17985]
554561  
traf6; TNF receptor-associated factor 6 [KO:K03175] [EC:2.3.2.27]
569441  
tumor protein p53-inducible nuclear protein 2 [KO:K21247]
336789  
vmp1; vacuole membrane protein 1 [KO:K21248]
492808  
stx17; syntaxin-17 [KO:K08491]
394044  
uvrag; UV radiation resistance-associated gene protein [KO:K21249]
792229  
sh3glb1a; endophilin-B1 [KO:K11248]
334911  
sh3glb1b; SH3-domain GRB2-like endophilin B1 [KO:K11248]
rubcn; run domain Beclin-1-interacting and cysteine-rich domain-containing protein isoform X2 [KO:K19330]
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2-like [KO:K07359] [EC:2.7.11.17]
camkk1b; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 1, alpha b [KO:K07359] [EC:2.7.11.17]
553788  
map3k7; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 [KO:K04427] [EC:2.7.11.25]
567021  
ern2; serine/threonine-protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE2 isoform X1 [KO:K08852] [EC:3.1.26.- 2.7.11.1]
itpr1b; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04958]
567611  
itpr1a; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04958]
558314  
dapk1; death-associated protein kinase 1 [KO:K08803] [EC:2.7.11.1]
562194  
dapk3; death-associated protein kinase 3 [KO:K08803] [EC:2.7.11.1]
555536  
si:dkey-240h12.4; death-associated protein kinase 2 [KO:K08803] [EC:2.7.11.1]
556756  
dapk2b; death-associated protein kinase 2 [KO:K08803] [EC:2.7.11.1]
571352  
dapk2a; death-associated protein kinase 3-like [KO:K08803] [EC:2.7.11.1]
321622  
hmgb1a; high mobility group protein B1 [KO:K10802]
795095  
hmgb1b; high mobility group protein B1 [KO:K10802]
559564  
eif2ak3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 [KO:K08860] [EC:2.7.11.1]
eif2ak4; eIF-2-alpha kinase GCN2 [KO:K16196] [EC:2.7.11.1]
321564  
eif2s1b; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 [KO:K03237]
myotubularin-related protein 3-like [KO:K18082] [EC:3.1.3.95 3.1.3.64 3.1.3.48]
393584  
zgc:63645; myotubularin-related protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K18082] [EC:3.1.3.95 3.1.3.64 3.1.3.48]
393838  
mtmr3; myotubularin-related protein 3 [KO:K18082] [EC:3.1.3.95 3.1.3.64 3.1.3.48]
323929  
mtmr14; myotubularin-related protein 14 isoform X1 [KO:K18086] [EC:3.1.3.95 3.1.3.64]
563140  
si:ch211-11n16.2; zinc finger FYVE domain-containing protein 1 [KO:K17603]
zfyve1; zinc finger FYVE domain-containing protein 1 [KO:K17603]
570965  
atg12; ubiquitin-like protein ATG12 [KO:K08336]
494180  
atg5; autophagy protein 5 [KO:K08339]
550552  
atg16l1; autophagy-related protein 16-1 [KO:K17890]
atg16l2; autophagy-related protein 16-2 isoform X1 [KO:K20868]
atg7; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: ubiquitin-like modifier-activating enzyme ATG7 [KO:K08337]
641330  
atg10; ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG10 [KO:K17888]
336632  
atg3; ubiquitin-like-conjugating enzyme ATG3 [KO:K08343]
373114  
cflara; CASP8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator a [KO:K04724]
572060  
rab33ba; uncharacterized protein LOC619200 [KO:K07920]
555521  
prkcq; protein kinase C theta type [KO:K18052] [EC:2.7.11.13]
403036  
gabarapl2; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein-like 2 [KO:K08341]
793200  
gabarapb; gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein [KO:K08341]
326974  
gabarapa; GABA(A) receptor-associated protein [KO:K08341]
554140  
atg4a; cysteine protease ATG4A [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
415193  
atg4c; cysteine protease ATG4C [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
448859  
atg4b; cysteine protease ATG4B [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
795933  
atg4da; cysteine protease ATG4D [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
324985  
zgc:64072; lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 precursor [KO:K06528]
563328  
lamp1; lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 precursor [KO:K06528]
393902  
rab7; ras-related protein Rab-7a [KO:K07897]
431725  
zgc:91909; ras-related protein rab-7-like [KO:K07897]
449549  
zgc:100918; uncharacterized protein LOC449549 [KO:K07897]
327007  
vamp8; vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 [KO:K08512]
553460  
snap29; synaptosomal-associated protein 29 [KO:K08509]
65225  
ctsd; cathepsin D precursor [KO:K01379] [EC:3.4.23.5]
336746  
zgc:63831; uncharacterized protein LOC336746 precursor [KO:K01379] [EC:3.4.23.5]
321453  
ctsla; cathepsin L1 precursor [KO:K01365] [EC:3.4.22.15]
30443  
ctslb; cathepsin Lb precursor [KO:K01365] [EC:3.4.22.15]
436641  
ctsl.1; cathepsin L.1 precursor [KO:K01365] [EC:3.4.22.15]
406645  
ctsba; cathepsin B precursor [KO:K01363] [EC:3.4.22.1]
569298  
ctsbb; cathepsin Bb precursor [KO:K01363] [EC:3.4.22.1]
Compound
C00350  
Phosphatidylethanolamine
C01194  
1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol
C04549  
1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
C05981  
Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Meijer AJ, Codogno P.
  Title
Regulation and role of autophagy in mammalian cells.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2445-62 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Deretic V.
  Title
Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.
  Journal
Trends Immunol 26:523-8 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Levine B, Yuan J.
  Title
Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:2679-88 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E.
  Title
LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2503-18 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Lum JJ, DeBerardinis RJ, Thompson CB.
  Title
Autophagy in metazoans: cell survival in the land of plenty.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:439-48 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ.
  Title
Autophagosomes: biogenesis from scratch?
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 17:415-22 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Klionsky DJ, Emr SD.
  Title
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
  Journal
Science 290:1717-21 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Bechet D, Tassa A, Taillandier D, Combaret L, Attaix D.
  Title
Lysosomal proteolysis in skeletal muscle.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2098-114 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
He C, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 43:67-93 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
An overview of the molecular mechanism of autophagy.
  Journal
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 335:1-32 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Mammalian autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 22:124-31 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Chen Y, Klionsky DJ
  Title
The regulation of autophagy - unanswered questions.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 124:161-70 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y
  Title
The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
  Journal
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 27:107-32 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Russell RC, Yuan HX, Guan KL
  Title
Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling.
  Journal
Cell Res 24:42-57 (2014)
Reference
  Authors
Noda NN, Fujioka Y
  Title
Atg1 family kinases in autophagy initiation.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 72:3083-96 (2015)
KO pathway
 

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