KEGG   PATHWAY: ec00720Help
Entry
ec00720                     Pathway                                

Name
Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
Description
Carbon fixation is an important pathway for autotrophs living in various environments. Plants and cyanobacteria fix CO2 as organic compounds using solar energy mainly by the reductive pentose phosphate cycle (also called Calvin cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle, or Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle) [MD:M00165]. There are, at least, five additional carbon fixation pathways known to exist in autotrophic bacteria and archaea, which differ in reducing compounds, energy source, and oxygen sensitivity of enzymes. (i) The reductive citric acid cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [MD:M00173] is found in microaerophiles and anaerobes, such as green sulfur bacteria. In one complete turn of this cycle, four molecules of CO2 are fixed by the enzymes that are sensitive to oxygen, resulting in the production of one molecule of oxaloacetate, which is itself an intermediate of the cycle. (ii) The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [MD:M00377] is found in strictly anaerobic bacteria and archaea (Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, and Euryarchaeota), some of which are methane-forming. A bifunctional enzyme, carbon monoxide dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA synthase, catalyzes the reactions from CO2 to CO and from CO2 to a methyl group, and then to generate acetyl-CoA. (iii) The 3-hydroxypropionate bicycle [MD:M00376] is found in some green non-sulphur bacteria of the family Chloroflexaceae. In one complete turn of this bicycle, three molecules of bicarbonate are converted into one molecule of pyruvate. In addition, this bicycle provides the secondary benefit of useful intermediates for biosynthesis: acetyl-CoA, glyoxylate, and succinyl-CoA. (iv) The hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle [MD:M00375] is found in aerobic Crenarchaeota, Acidianus, Metallosphaera, and Sulfolobales. Some of the intermediates and the carboxylation reactions are the same as in the 3-hydroxypropionate bicycle. One complete turn of this cycle generates two molecules of acetyl-CoA, one of which is reutilized in the the cycle and the other is removed for cell material biosynthesis. (v) The dicarboxylate-hydroxybutyrate cycle [MD:M00374] was named after its intermediates: succinate (a kind of dicarboxylate) and hydroxybutyrate. This cycle has been found only in Ignicoccus hospitals, a strictly anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaea. Recent genome study suggests that this cycle may exist in Desulforococcales (to which Ignicoccus belongs) and Thermoproteales (a taxon close to the origin of archaea). The first half of the cycle, from acetyl-CoA to succinate-CoA, corresponds to the reductive citric acid cycle and the latter half of the cycle, from succinate-CoA to two molecules of acetyl-CoA, corresponds to the hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutyrate cycle.
Class
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Carbon fixation pathways in prokaryotes
ec00720

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00173  
Reductive citrate cycle (Arnon-Buchanan cycle) [PATH:ec00720]
M00374  
Dicarboxylate-hydroxybutyrate cycle [PATH:ec00720]
M00375  
Hydroxypropionate-hydroxybutylate cycle [PATH:ec00720]
M00376  
3-Hydroxypropionate bi-cycle [PATH:ec00720]
M00377  
Reductive acetyl-CoA pathway (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) [PATH:ec00720]
M00579  
Phosphate acetyltransferase-acetate kinase pathway, acetyl-CoA => acetate [PATH:ec00720]
Other DBs
GO: 
Enzyme
1.1.1.-  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1.2.7.-  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
6.2.1.-  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Compound
C00011  
CO2
C00022  
Pyruvate
C00024  
Acetyl-CoA
C00026  
2-Oxoglutarate
C00033  
Acetate
C00036  
Oxaloacetate
C00042  
Succinate
C00048  
Glyoxylate
C00058  
Formate
C00074  
Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00083  
Malonyl-CoA
C00091  
Succinyl-CoA
C00100  
Propanoyl-CoA
C00101  
Tetrahydrofolate
C00122  
Fumarate
C00143  
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate
C00149  
(S)-Malate
C00158  
Citrate
C00222  
3-Oxopropanoate
C00227  
Acetyl phosphate
C00232  
Succinate semialdehyde
C00234  
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate
C00237  
CO
C00288  
HCO3-
C00311  
Isocitrate
C00332  
Acetoacetyl-CoA
C00417  
cis-Aconitate
C00440  
5-Methyltetrahydrofolate
C00445  
5,10-Methenyltetrahydrofolate
C00566  
(3S)-Citryl-CoA
C00683  
(S)-Methylmalonyl-CoA
C00877  
Crotonoyl-CoA
C00894  
Propenoyl-CoA
C00989  
4-Hydroxybutanoic acid
C01011  
(3S)-Citramalyl-CoA
C01013  
3-Hydroxypropanoate
C01144  
(S)-3-Hydroxybutanoyl-CoA
C01213  
(R)-Methylmalonyl-CoA
C02331  
Vinylacetyl-CoA
C04348  
L-Malyl-CoA
C05668  
3-Hydroxypropionyl-CoA
C06027  
L-erythro-3-Methylmalyl-CoA
C06028  
Mesaconyl-CoA
C11062  
4-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA
C18323  
Mesaconyl-C4-CoA
Reference
  Authors
Zarzycki J, Brecht V, Muller M, Fuchs G
  Title
Identifying the missing steps of the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate CO2 fixation cycle in Chloroflexus aurantiacus.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106:21317-22 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Teufel R, Kung JW, Kockelkorn D, Alber BE, Fuchs G
  Title
3-hydroxypropionyl-coenzyme A dehydratase and acryloyl-coenzyme A reductase, enzymes of the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle in the Sulfolobales.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 191:4572-81 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Huber H, Gallenberger M, Jahn U, Eylert E, Berg IA, Kockelkorn D, Eisenreich W, Fuchs G
  Title
A dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate autotrophic carbon assimilation cycle in the hyperthermophilic Archaeum Ignicoccus hospitalis.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:7851-6 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Hugler M, Wirsen CO, Fuchs G, Taylor CD, Sievert SM
  Title
Evidence for autotrophic CO2 fixation via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle  by members of the epsilon subdivision of proteobacteria.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 187:3020-7 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Seravalli J, Kumar M, Ragsdale SW
  Title
Rapid kinetic studies of acetyl-CoA synthesis: evidence supporting the catalytic  intermediacy of a paramagnetic NiFeC species in the autotrophic Wood-Ljungdahl pathway.
  Journal
Biochemistry 41:1807-19 (2002)
Reference
PMID:3096193
  Authors
Ljungdahl LG
  Title
The autotrophic pathway of acetate synthesis in acetogenic bacteria.
  Journal
Annu Rev Microbiol 40:415-50 (1986)

DBGET integrated database retrieval system