KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04014Help
Entry
hsa04014                    Pathway                                

Name
Ras signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
The Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras proteins transduce signals from extracellular growth factors by cycling between inactive GDP-bound and active GTP-bound states. The exchange of GTP for GDP on RAS is regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Activated RAS (RAS-GTP) regulates multiple cellular functions through effectors including Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Ral guanine nucleotide-dissociation stimulator (RALGDS).
Class
Environmental Information Processing; Signal transduction
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Ras signaling pathway
hsa04014

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H01437  
Neurofibromatosis type 1
Drug
D10465  
Golvatinib tartrate (USAN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
1950  
EGF; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
2246  
FGF1; fibroblast growth factor 1 [KO:K18496]
2247  
FGF2; fibroblast growth factor 2 [KO:K18497]
2248  
FGF3; fibroblast growth factor 3 [KO:K04358]
2249  
FGF4; fibroblast growth factor 4 [KO:K04358]
8822  
FGF17; fibroblast growth factor 17 [KO:K04358]
2251  
FGF6; fibroblast growth factor 6 [KO:K04358]
2252  
FGF7; fibroblast growth factor 7 [KO:K04358]
2253  
FGF8; fibroblast growth factor 8 [KO:K04358]
2254  
FGF9; fibroblast growth factor 9 [KO:K04358]
2255  
FGF10; fibroblast growth factor 10 [KO:K04358]
2256  
FGF11; fibroblast growth factor 11 [KO:K04358]
2257  
FGF12; fibroblast growth factor 12 [KO:K04358]
2258  
FGF13; fibroblast growth factor 13 [KO:K04358]
2259  
FGF14; fibroblast growth factor 14 [KO:K04358]
8823  
FGF16; fibroblast growth factor 16 [KO:K04358]
2250  
FGF5; fibroblast growth factor 5 [KO:K04358]
8817  
FGF18; fibroblast growth factor 18 [KO:K04358]
9965  
FGF19; fibroblast growth factor 19 [KO:K04358]
26281  
FGF20; fibroblast growth factor 20 [KO:K04358]
26291  
FGF21; fibroblast growth factor 21 [KO:K04358]
27006  
FGF22; fibroblast growth factor 22 [KO:K04358]
8074  
FGF23; fibroblast growth factor 23 [KO:K04358]
4803  
NGF; nerve growth factor [KO:K02582]
3630  
INS; insulin [KO:K04526]
3479  
IGF1; insulin like growth factor 1 [KO:K05459]
5154  
PDGFA; platelet derived growth factor subunit A [KO:K04359]
5155  
PDGFB; platelet derived growth factor subunit B [KO:K17386]
56034  
PDGFC; platelet derived growth factor C [KO:K05450]
80310  
PDGFD; platelet derived growth factor D [KO:K05450]
1435  
CSF1; colony stimulating factor 1 [KO:K05453]
4254  
KITLG; KIT ligand [KO:K05461]
7422  
VEGFA; vascular endothelial growth factor A [KO:K05448]
7423  
VEGFB; vascular endothelial growth factor B [KO:K16858]
5228  
PGF; placental growth factor [KO:K16859]
7424  
VEGFC; vascular endothelial growth factor C [KO:K05449]
2277  
FIGF; c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D) [KO:K05449]
3082  
HGF; hepatocyte growth factor [KO:K05460]
284  
ANGPT1; angiopoietin 1 [KO:K05465]
285  
ANGPT2; angiopoietin 2 [KO:K05466]
51378  
ANGPT4; angiopoietin 4 [KO:K05467]
1942  
EFNA1; ephrin-A1 [KO:K05462]
1943  
EFNA2; ephrin-A2 [KO:K05462]
1944  
EFNA3; ephrin-A3 [KO:K05462]
1945  
EFNA4; ephrin-A4 [KO:K05462]
1946  
EFNA5; ephrin-A5 [KO:K05462]
1956  
EGFR; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2260  
FGFR1; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [KO:K04362] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2263  
FGFR2; fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 [KO:K05093] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2261  
FGFR3; fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 [KO:K05094] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2264  
FGFR4; fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 [KO:K05095] [EC:2.7.10.1]
4804  
NGFR; nerve growth factor receptor [KO:K02583]
3643  
INSR; insulin receptor [KO:K04527] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3480  
IGF1R; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
5156  
PDGFRA; platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha [KO:K04363] [EC:2.7.10.1]
5159  
PDGFRB; platelet derived growth factor receptor beta [KO:K05089] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1436  
CSF1R; colony stimulating factor 1 receptor [KO:K05090] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3815  
KIT; KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05091] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2321  
FLT1; fms related tyrosine kinase 1 [KO:K05096] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2324  
FLT4; fms related tyrosine kinase 4 [KO:K05097] [EC:2.7.10.1]
3791  
KDR; kinase insert domain receptor [KO:K05098] [EC:2.7.10.1]
4233  
MET; MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05099] [EC:2.7.10.1]
7010  
TEK; TEK receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K05121] [EC:2.7.10.1]
1969  
EPHA2; EPH receptor A2 [KO:K05103] [EC:2.7.10.1]
2885  
GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
2549  
GAB1; GRB2 associated binding protein 1 [KO:K09593]
9846  
GAB2; GRB2 associated binding protein 2 [KO:K08091]
6464  
SHC1; SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 1 [KO:K06279]
25759  
SHC2; SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 2 [KO:K17447]
53358  
SHC3; SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) transforming protein 3 [KO:K17448]
399694  
SHC4; SHC (Src homology 2 domain containing) family member 4 [KO:K17449]
5781  
PTPN11; protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 11 [KO:K07293] [EC:3.1.3.48]
6654  
SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
6655  
SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
5335  
PLCG1; phospholipase C gamma 1 [KO:K01116] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5336  
PLCG2; phospholipase C gamma 2 [KO:K05859] [EC:3.1.4.11]
10125  
RASGRP1; RAS guanyl releasing protein 1 [KO:K04350]
10235  
RASGRP2; RAS guanyl releasing protein 2 [KO:K12361]
25780  
RASGRP3; RAS guanyl releasing protein 3 [KO:K12362]
115727  
RASGRP4; RAS guanyl releasing protein 4 [KO:K12363]
7535  
ZAP70; zeta chain of T cell receptor associated protein kinase 70kDa [KO:K07360] [EC:2.7.10.2]
27040  
LAT; linker for activation of T-cells [KO:K07362]
3363  
HTR7; 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 7 [KO:K04163]
2782  
GNB1; G protein subunit beta 1 [KO:K04536]
2783  
GNB2; G protein subunit beta 2 [KO:K04537]
2784  
GNB3; G protein subunit beta 3 [KO:K07825]
59345  
GNB4; G protein subunit beta 4 [KO:K04538]
10681  
GNB5; G protein subunit beta 5 [KO:K04539]
54331  
GNG2; G protein subunit gamma 2 [KO:K07826]
2785  
GNG3; G protein subunit gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
2786  
GNG4; G protein subunit gamma 4 [KO:K04541]
2787  
GNG5; G protein subunit gamma 5 [KO:K04542]
2788  
GNG7; G protein subunit gamma 7 [KO:K04543]
94235  
GNG8; G protein subunit gamma 8 [KO:K04544]
2790  
GNG10; G protein subunit gamma 10 [KO:K04545]
2791  
GNG11; G protein subunit gamma 11 [KO:K04546]
55970  
GNG12; G protein subunit gamma 12 [KO:K04347]
51764  
GNG13; G protein subunit gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
2792  
GNGT1; G protein subunit gamma transducin 1 [KO:K04548]
2793  
GNGT2; G protein subunit gamma transducin 2 [KO:K04549]
5566  
PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  
PRKACB; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  
PRKACG; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5923  
RASGRF1; Ras protein specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 1 [KO:K04349]
5924  
RASGRF2; Ras protein specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 2 [KO:K12326]
2902  
GRIN1; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1 [KO:K05208]
2903  
GRIN2A; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A [KO:K05209]
2904  
GRIN2B; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2B [KO:K05210]
810  
CALML3; calmodulin like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  
CALM2; calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
808  
CALM3; calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
801  
CALM1; calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
163688  
CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  
CALML5; calmodulin like 5 [KO:K02183]
3265  
HRAS; Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K02833]
3845  
KRAS; Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07827]
4893  
NRAS; neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
22808  
MRAS; muscle RAS oncogene homolog [KO:K07831]
6237  
RRAS; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog [KO:K07829]
22800  
RRAS2; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K07830]
4763  
NF1; neurofibromin 1 [KO:K08052]
5921  
RASA1; RAS p21 protein activator 1 [KO:K04352]
5922  
RASA2; RAS p21 protein activator 2 [KO:K08053]
22821  
RASA3; RAS p21 protein activator 3 [KO:K12380]
10156  
RASA4; RAS p21 protein activator 4 [KO:K17630]
RASA4B; RAS p21 protein activator 4B [KO:K17630]
8831  
SYNGAP1; synaptic Ras GTPase activating protein 1 [KO:K17631]
8437  
RASAL1; RAS protein activator like 1 [KO:K17632]
9462  
RASAL2; RAS protein activator like 2 [KO:K17633]
64926  
RASAL3; RAS protein activator like 3 [KO:K17634]
11186  
RASSF1; Ras association domain family member 1 [KO:K09850]
83593  
RASSF5; Ras association domain family member 5 [KO:K08015]
6789  
STK4; serine/threonine kinase 4 [KO:K04411]
7074  
TIAM1; T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 [KO:K05731]
5879  
RAC1; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac1) [KO:K04392]
5880  
RAC2; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2) [KO:K07860]
5881  
RAC3; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac3) [KO:K07861]
5058  
PAK1; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 1 [KO:K04409] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5062  
PAK2; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 2 [KO:K04410] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5063  
PAK3; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 3 [KO:K05733] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10298  
PAK4; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 4 [KO:K05734] [EC:2.7.11.1]
56924  
PAK6; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 6 [KO:K05735] [EC:2.7.11.1]
57144  
PAK7; p21 protein (Cdc42/Rac)-activated kinase 7 [KO:K05736] [EC:2.7.11.1]
387  
RHOA; ras homolog family member A [KO:K04513]
5290  
PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  
PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  
PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5294  
PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  
PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
23533  
PIK3R5; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 5 [KO:K02649]
5296  
PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
8503  
PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
207  
AKT1; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  
AKT2; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  
AKT3; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
8517  
IKBKG; inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase gamma [KO:K07210]
1147  
CHUK; conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase [KO:K04467] [EC:2.7.11.10]
3551  
IKBKB; inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells, kinase beta [KO:K07209] [EC:2.7.11.10]
4790  
NFKB1; nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 [KO:K02580]
5970  
RELA; v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A [KO:K04735]
572  
BAD; BCL2 associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
598  
BCL2L1; BCL2 like 1 [KO:K04570]
4303  
FOXO4; forkhead box O4 [KO:K12358]
356  
FASLG; Fas ligand [KO:K04389]
4301  
MLLT4; myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia [KO:K05702]
8036  
SHOC2; SHOC2 leucine-rich repeat scaffold protein [KO:K19613]
5894  
RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  
MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5605  
MAP2K2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  
MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  
MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
51365  
PLA1A; phospholipase A1 member A [KO:K13618] [EC:3.1.1.-]
8399  
PLA2G10; phospholipase A2 group X [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
26279  
PLA2G2D; phospholipase A2 group IID [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
30814  
PLA2G2E; phospholipase A2 group IIE [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
50487  
PLA2G3; phospholipase A2 group III [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
64600  
PLA2G2F; phospholipase A2 group IIF [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
81579  
PLA2G12A; phospholipase A2 group XIIA [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
84647  
PLA2G12B; phospholipase A2 group XIIB [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5319  
PLA2G1B; phospholipase A2 group IB [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5322  
PLA2G5; phospholipase A2 group V [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5320  
PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2 group IIA [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
391013  
PLA2G2C; phospholipase A2 group IIC [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
123745  
PLA2G4E; phospholipase A2 group IVE [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5321  
PLA2G4A; phospholipase A2 group IVA [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
8681  
JMJD7-PLA2G4B; JMJD7-PLA2G4B readthrough [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
PLA2G4B; phospholipase A2 group IVB [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
8605  
PLA2G4C; phospholipase A2 group IVC [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
283748  
PLA2G4D; phospholipase A2 group IVD [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
255189  
PLA2G4F; phospholipase A2 group IVF [KO:K16342] [EC:3.1.1.4]
8398  
PLA2G6; phospholipase A2 group VI [KO:K16343] [EC:3.1.1.4]
11145  
PLA2G16; phospholipase A2 group XVI [KO:K16817] [EC:3.1.1.4 3.1.1.32]
2002  
ELK1; ELK1, ETS transcription factor [KO:K04375]
2113  
ETS1; ETS proto-oncogene 1, transcription factor [KO:K02678]
2114  
ETS2; ETS proto-oncogene 2, transcription factor [KO:K02678]
8315  
BRAP; BRCA1 associated protein [KO:K10632] [EC:2.3.2.27]
8844  
KSR1; kinase suppressor of ras 1 [KO:K14958]
283455  
KSR2; kinase suppressor of ras 2 [KO:K18529] [EC:2.7.11.1]
9771  
RAPGEF5; Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 [KO:K08019]
5906  
RAP1A; RAP1A, member of RAS oncogene family [KO:K04353]
5908  
RAP1B; RAP1B, member of RAS oncogene family [KO:K07836]
5900  
RALGDS; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator [KO:K08732]
23179  
RGL1; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator like 1 [KO:K17635]
5863  
RGL2; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator like 2 [KO:K17636]
5898  
RALA; v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog A (ras related) [KO:K07834]
5899  
RALB; v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene homolog B [KO:K07835]
5599  
MAPK8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5602  
MAPK10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5601  
MAPK9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
55770  
EXOC2; exocyst complex component 2 [KO:K17637]
29110  
TBK1; TANK binding kinase 1 [KO:K05410] [EC:2.7.11.10]
5966  
REL; v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog [KO:K09254]
5337  
PLD1; phospholipase D1 [KO:K01115] [EC:3.1.4.4]
5338  
PLD2; phospholipase D2 [KO:K01115] [EC:3.1.4.4]
10928  
RALBP1; ralA binding protein 1 [KO:K08773]
998  
CDC42; cell division cycle 42 [KO:K04393]
51196  
PLCE1; phospholipase C epsilon 1 [KO:K05860] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5578  
PRKCA; protein kinase C alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5579  
PRKCB; protein kinase C beta [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5582  
PRKCG; protein kinase C gamma [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
9610  
RIN1; Ras and Rab interactor 1 [KO:K17638]
25  
ABL1; ABL proto-oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K06619] [EC:2.7.10.2]
27  
ABL2; ABL proto-oncogene 2, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K08887] [EC:2.7.10.2]
5868  
RAB5A; RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07887]
5869  
RAB5B; RAB5B, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07888]
5878  
RAB5C; RAB5C, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07889]
382  
ARF6; ADP ribosylation factor 6 [KO:K07941]
Compound
C00035  
GDP
C00044  
GTP
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00165  
Diacylglycerol
C00575  
3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  
D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C05981  
Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Karnoub AE, Weinberg RA
  Title
Ras oncogenes: split personalities.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 9:517-31 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Malumbres M, Barbacid M
  Title
RAS oncogenes: the first 30 years.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:459-65 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Cox AD, Der CJ
  Title
Ras history: The saga continues.
  Journal
Small GTPases 1:2-27 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Cox AD, Der CJ
  Title
Ras family signaling: therapeutic targeting.
  Journal
Cancer Biol Ther 1:599-606 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Rajalingam K, Schreck R, Rapp UR, Albert S
  Title
Ras oncogenes and their downstream targets.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1773:1177-95 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Schubbert S, Shannon K, Bollag G
  Title
Hyperactive Ras in developmental disorders and cancer.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 7:295-308 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Poulogiannis G, Luo F, Arends MJ
  Title
RAS signalling in the colorectum in health and disease.
  Journal
Cell Commun Adhes 19:1-9 (2012)
Reference
  Authors
Berndt N, Hamilton AD, Sebti SM
  Title
Targeting protein prenylation for cancer therapy.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 11:775-91 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Overmeyer JH, Maltese WA
  Title
Death pathways triggered by activated Ras in cancer cells.
  Journal
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) 16:1693-713 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Rodriguez-Viciana P, Tetsu O, Oda K, Okada J, Rauen K, McCormick F
  Title
Cancer targets in the Ras pathway.
  Journal
Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 70:461-7 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Cox AD, Der CJ
  Title
The dark side of Ras: regulation of apoptosis.
  Journal
Oncogene 22:8999-9006 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Braun BS, Shannon K
  Title
Targeting Ras in myeloid leukemias.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 14:2249-52 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Pino MS, Chung DC
  Title
The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer.
  Journal
Gastroenterology 138:2059-72 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Schrader JW, Schallhorn A, Grill B, Guo X
  Title
Activation of small GTPases of the Ras and Rho family by growth factors active on mast cells.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 38:1181-6 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Ahearn IM, Haigis K, Bar-Sagi D, Philips MR
  Title
Regulating the regulator: post-translational modification of RAS.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 13:39-51 (2012)
Reference
  Authors
Ehrhardt GR, Korherr C, Wieler JS, Knaus M, Schrader JW
  Title
A novel potential effector of M-Ras and p21 Ras negatively regulates p21 Ras-mediated gene induction and cell growth.
  Journal
Oncogene 20:188-97 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Goldfinger LE, Ptak C, Jeffery ED, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Ginsberg MH
  Title
RLIP76 (RalBP1) is an R-Ras effector that mediates adhesion-dependent Rac activation and cell migration.
  Journal
J Cell Biol 174:877-88 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kortum RL, Rouquette-Jazdanian AK, Samelson LE
  Title
Ras and extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in thymocytes and T cells.
  Journal
Trends Immunol 34:259-68 (2013)
Reference
  Authors
Roberts DM, Anderson AL, Hidaka M, Swetenburg RL, Patterson C, Stanford WL, Bautch VL
  Title
A vascular gene trap screen defines RasGRP3 as an angiogenesis-regulated gene required for the endothelial response to phorbol esters.
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Mol Cell Biol 24:10515-28 (2004)
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  Authors
Reuther GW, Der CJ
  Title
The Ras branch of small GTPases: Ras family members don't fall far from the tree.
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Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:157-65 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Fernandez-Medarde A, Santos E
  Title
The RasGrf family of mammalian guanine nucleotide exchange factors.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1815:170-88 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Iwashita S, Song SY
  Title
RasGAPs: a crucial regulator of extracellular stimuli for homeostasis of cellular functions.
  Journal
Mol Biosyst 4:213-22 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Ory S, Morrison DK
  Title
Signal transduction: implications for Ras-dependent ERK signaling.
  Journal
Curr Biol 14:R277-8 (2004)
Reference
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Matheny SA, White MA
  Title
Signaling threshold regulation by the Ras effector IMP.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 284:11007-11 (2009)
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